Aggression is a complex and multifaceted concept in psychology that refers to behavior that is intended to harm or inflict damage on another individual or group. It is a natural and universal aspect of human behavior, but it can also be destructive and harmful if not properly managed. Understanding the psychological factors that contribute to aggression can help individuals and communities better understand and prevent aggressive behavior, and promote healthy and positive relationships.
There are several theories of aggression in psychology that aim to explain why people behave aggressively. One of the most well-known theories is the frustration-aggression theory, which proposes that aggression is a natural response to frustration or the blocking of goals. According to this theory, when an individual experiences frustration or their goals are blocked, they may feel angry and aggressive in order to vent their frustration or try to overcome the obstacle.
Another influential theory of aggression is the social learning theory, which suggests that aggression is learned through observation and reinforcement. According to this theory, people learn aggressive behavior by observing and imitating others, and by receiving reinforcement for aggressive behavior. For example, if a child sees their parent hitting another person in response to a perceived slight, they may learn to use aggression as a way to solve problems or deal with conflict.
There are also several psychological factors that can increase the likelihood of aggressive behavior. For example, people who are feeling stressed or anxious may be more likely to behave aggressively as a way to cope with their negative emotions. Similarly, people who have low self-esteem or who feel rejected or marginalized may be more prone to aggression as a way to assert themselves or feel more powerful.
Another important factor in aggression is personality. Some people are more prone to aggression due to their personality traits, such as low levels of empathy or high levels of impulsivity. These individuals may be more likely to engage in aggressive behavior without considering the consequences or the impact on others.
There are several strategies that can be used to reduce and prevent aggressive behavior. One effective approach is to address the underlying causes of aggression, such as frustration or stress, by teaching individuals how to cope with these emotions in healthy ways. For example, teaching people how to manage their emotions through techniques such as relaxation or mindfulness can help reduce aggressive tendencies.
Another approach is to promote positive social relationships and a sense of belonging. When people feel connected and supported by others, they are less likely to behave aggressively. This can be achieved through programs that promote social skills and communication, or by creating positive and inclusive environments.
In conclusion, aggression is a complex and multifaceted concept in psychology that refers to behavior that is intended to harm or inflict damage on another individual or group. While aggression is a natural aspect of human behavior, it can also be destructive and harmful if not properly managed. Understanding the psychological factors that contribute to aggression can help individuals and communities better understand and prevent aggressive behavior, and promote healthy and positive relationships.
≡Essays on Aggression. Free Examples of Research Paper Topics, Titles GradesFixer
It also refers to cognitive aggression. . Finally, too much past research has focussed on the person with the mental illness, rather than the nature of the social interchange that led up to the violence. Males are the most accounted for being arrested for violent crimes. Social Psychologists in the past as well as present have shown vigorous interest in the laboratory and field experiments to identify the various variables of aggression. Some behaviours such as physically pushing, shoving and striking may be qualified as aggressive, while in other situations it may also include ostracizing individuals — which has proven to produce aggressive reactions DeWall, Twenge, Bushman, Im and Williams, 2010; Wesselmann, Butler, Williams and Pickett, 2010; Warburton, Williams and Cairns, 2006; Williams and Warburton, 2003. In this paper, the researcher tries to relate psychological concepts and acts of violence among the youths.
Sample Psychology Essay on Aggression and Prosocial Behavior
Psychologists have to assess all of the characteristics and symptoms an individual possesses and stick to textbook definitions when it comes to properly formulating a diagnosis. The most common cases tend to be adolescents with depression and anxiety whose manifestations are not different to those of adults and so are treated fairly similarly. Development of Aggression: A comparative study of different societies and cultures shows that aggression develops in the family and in the society where one lives and it differs according to the variation in culture. Effects of alcohol on person perception: A social cognitive neuroscience approach. Health Psychology, 3 1 , 15—26. Aggression served as the solutions for adaptive problems su ch as intrasexual competition, fighting over resource and mate, and hierarchy negotiation Bu ss, 1997. This may be attributed to cultural variation.
She also advises that parents should strictly avoid physical punishment as this may lead to aggression. This individual is, and always has been a large framed guy, so he used it to his advantage and stopped a lot of the bullying that was happening to his friends. All major three approaches relating to the biological model have argued that aggression is an inherent part of human nature programmed at birth to manifest in a particular way. Young-adults and children are constantly bombarded via all media portals with violence, violent acts and differing types of assaults against mankind. Thus disturbances in the physical environment may reinforce negative thoughts, negative emotions and increase aggressive motivation in several ways.
There is no doubt that in almost all cultures boys receive more reward and encouragement and less punishment for aggressive behaviour than girls do. Due to the decline in the frequency of physical aggression with age, many researchers believe the aggression may not be from a social learning perspective because they are exposed to more models of aggression as they grow older. What are the 4 types of aggression? In another incident a maid servant became violent when her land lady denied her leave to go home. Whether aggression was instrumental or non-instrumental in overcoming the frustration and whether frustration was arbitrary and non-arbitrary was the purpose of the study. Normally we see that when an employee is scolded by his boss in the office he breaks the cups and plates at home at slightest provocation, beats or scolds his wife without obvious reasons.
Essay // Psychology: Causes of Aggressive Behaviour in Human Primates
This means that vicious gossip could also be considered aggression. More and more studies support the possibility of a strong connection between aggression and genetics or hereditary factors. He referred to the natural drive as Thanatos and explained that this was a drive against self. It is a form of materialism, denying any independent significance for mind. Careful research since many decades has brought to light the role of social and cultural factors in the causation of aggression.
Prejudice grows in the society and in the minds of men. According to this theory, the stimulus to aggression is usually frustration. Since increased reactive aggression is found in various mental disorders, it might be better regarded and explained as a transdiagnostic phenomenon. Some cultures are much more peaceful and do not appreciate at all any type of violence. Hostility and Aggression 10. Contrary to their Type B counterparts, Type A people set high expectations on their performance.
The tasks assigned to males and females vary to a great extent. Aggression as Drive As scientific interest in the purported instinctual basis of aggressive behavior waned, it was replaced by the concept of drive. There were several people that help contribute to the study of behaviorism; however there are five that were key in pioneering what we know today; Ivan Pavlov, Edward Lee Thorndike, John B. There is no rigorous difference between instrumental and affective aggression, as most cases of aggression have properties of both types. Prejudice aggravates aggressive and social behaviour and fight between two social groups. Economic insecurity stands on the way of their all-round development.
Aggression also develops in the childhood during sibling zelousy. Aggression as an innate predisposition toward destruction fails to give a convincing explanation as to why some people do not turn violent while others do. Recently a driver at Sambalpur was alleged to murder the land lady because she did not pay the money he wanted and tore the license of the driver. Males of 18-20 years age group while attending a summer camp were requested to indicate their attitudes towards Mexicans and Japanese before and after the situation involving frustration. Alcoholhas also been linked to aggression through the disinhibition hypothesis which explains how the cortical control is compromised by alcohol that leads to increased activity in the more primitive areas of the brain.
» — Danny J. Though the influence of society and culture cannot be separated as they over-lap each other, studies of cultural anthropologists and social psychologists indicate the important role of culture in the increment or minimization of aggressive and violent behaviour. The theory suggested that the onset of aggression is conditional, while the instinct is innate, its actual expression is cond itionally elicited by environmental releaser. Thus, it is clear that all the children had learned the aggressive response. Studies show that only 5%-10% of children that continue to show high levels of aggression are at a greater risk of engaging in physical violence during adolescence. Higgins eds , Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles 2nd edn, pp. Aggressive behaviour may also manifest itself in two basic forms: such as Interpersonal and Intergroup forms.
The Mondugamor tribe on the other hand is over aggressive, hostile, fierce, war like and uncooperative perhaps because they have been frustrated in the basic need of food and love and they have also been taught simultaneously to handle their frustrations in an intolerant and aggressive manner. Take the recent case of death sentence to Dhananjaya Chatterjee who raped and brutally murdered a 14 year old school girl. In other words, there are a lot of examples of aggression and correspondingly there are a lot of reasons and motives for aggressive behaviors. Effects of alcohol and drinking experience on human physical aggression. In other words, they create an uncomfortable pressure that must be released in some way. Both the psychodynamic theory and the hydraulic model emphasized on the need of catharsis, which refers to the process of releasing pent-up feelings by acting aggressively towards a substitute to reduce aggression. The first category of aggression which includes physical torture, attack, violence, destruction of property and dignity affect peace and prosperity of the society and its members.