The congress of berlin. Did the Congress of Berlin create a more unstable Europe 2022-10-07
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The Congress of Berlin, also known as the Berlin Conference, was a significant international conference held in Berlin, Germany, in 1884-1885. It was convened by the German Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, in an effort to address the various territorial and trade disputes that had arisen in Africa as a result of the Scramble for Africa, a period of rapid colonization and territorial expansion by European powers.
During the Congress of Berlin, representatives from 14 European powers and the United States met to discuss the issues related to Africa and to redraw the map of the continent. The main goal of the conference was to establish rules for the partition and colonization of Africa, as well as to regulate trade and commerce in the region.
One of the most significant outcomes of the Congress of Berlin was the establishment of the principle of "effective occupation," which stated that a European power could only claim ownership of a territory in Africa if it was able to effectively control and govern it. This principle was meant to prevent the territorial disputes that had arisen between European powers in Africa, and to ensure that the process of colonization was conducted in a more orderly and peaceful manner.
Another important outcome of the Congress of Berlin was the establishment of the Congo Free State, a personal possession of King Leopold II of Belgium, which became one of the largest and most lucrative colonies in Africa. The Congo Free State was granted extensive powers and privileges, including the right to make treaties with African states and to maintain an independent military force.
The Congress of Berlin also addressed the issue of the slave trade in Africa, which had been banned by many European powers but was still being practiced in some parts of the continent. The conference adopted a number of measures to suppress the slave trade, including the establishment of a network of consular posts and the establishment of a system of patrols to intercept slave ships.
Overall, the Congress of Berlin had a significant impact on the history of Africa and the relationship between European powers and the continent. It established a framework for the partition and colonization of Africa, and set the stage for the eventual emergence of modern African states. However, it also had negative consequences, as the scramble for Africa led to the exploitation and oppression of African peoples, and the establishment of the Congo Free State was marked by widespread human rights abuses.
Did the Congress of Berlin create a more unstable Europe
Members of this group were Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria. This memorandum was listed in the protocol of documents submitted to the congress but was not discussed on the floor. Russia felt like they had been undercompensated since they had won the war and felt like the amount of land they acquired was not enough. The Ottoman Empire would declare war on Russia, and would come in from the Odessa Port, the only usable port — a major port in the Black Sea. On June 28, during the discussions on Serbia, the Turkish representative, Karatheodori Caratheodory Pasha, and the English representative, Lord Salisbury, demanded that a similar clause be inserted in the peace treaty as a condition for the recognition of Serbian independence. The members of the united committee also visited the representatives of the Balkan countries Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria , who were not officially represented at the congress but were working behind the scenes.
Retrieved 19 September 2017. Armenia: The Survival of A Nation. Otto Von Bismarck's goal within the conference was to avoid Russian domination in the Balkans, and divide the territories fairly amongst the 6 powers and to establish varying levels of independence for multiple balkan countries. The Great European Treaties of the Nineteenth Century. BIBLIOGRAPHY Kohler and Wolf, in: AJHSP, 24 1916 , ix; 1ff. Retrieved 8 February 2019— via Internet Archive. On June 28, during the discussions on Serbia, the Turkish representative, Karatheodori Caratheodory Pasha, and the English representative, Lord Salisbury, demanded that a similar clause be inserted in the peace treaty as a condition for the recognition of Serbian independence.
Background The Ottoman Empire was in terminal decline and since the start of the 19th century, it had been in retreat in the Balkans, which it had once dominated. Retrieved 13 November 2022. Russia had no waterfront, and therefore could not sail in winter. These tensions proved to me the catalyst for the start of World War 1, when Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, was assassinated in 1914 by Bosnian Serb Gavrilo Princip, with the intention of freeing Bosnia of Austria-Hungarian rule and establishing a common South Slav state. Tervuren: Royal Museum for Central Africa. Archived from PDF on 13 September 2020.
The decisions made at the Congress were to leave the Balkans fundamentally unstable for several decades to come and even contributed to the wars in the region in the 1990s. Indeed, Pan-Slavic nationalism was a contributing factor to the outbreak of the First World War. After the congress was concluded, Serbia and Bulgaria complied with the clauses of the peace treaty obliging them to grant equal rights to their minorities, and even incorporated these clauses in their constitutions. Retrieved 19 September 2017. The Britain and French could not get any supplies in to assist their ally, Russia, which was struggling badly. Segel, Rumaenien und seine Juden 1918 ; L. European Alliances and Alignments 1871—1890.
The purpose of the Potsdam meeting was the implementation of the agreements reached at Yalta. Instead, the victory resulted in an Austro-Hungarian gain on the Balkan front that was brought about by the rest of the European powers' preference for a powerful Austria-Hungarian Empire, which threatened basically no one, to a powerful Russia, which had been locked in competition with Britain in the so-called The Serbs were upset with "Russia. Iran-Turkey Relations, 1979—2011: Conceptualising the Dynamics of Politics, Religion and Security in Middle-Power States. War and Diplomacy: The Russo-Turkish War of 1877—1878 and the Treaty of Berlin. Germany had surrendered in May; the war with Japan continued. During the countries' previous major conflict, the Neither the Russian nor the Turkish military was a leading armed force in 1877, and the result was a war of frequent strategic and tactical blunders on both sides. By a separate resolution, introduced into paragraph 44 of the peace treaty, equal rights were granted to the members of all religions in Romania.
Congress's actions ultimately sacrificed long-term stability in favor of a short-term easing of political tensions. The ultimate effect of the Congress was effectively to reverse Russia's territorial gains during the war, returning some seized territory to the - The Russo-Turkish War - The Russian and Ottoman empires fought quite a number of conflicts during the 18th and 19th centuries. The other allies or the enemies of the Allied Nations of which Great Britain and was not a part of and which they were against, were called the Central Powers. By a separate resolution, introduced into paragraph 44 of the peace treaty, equal rights were granted to the members of all religions in Romania. Why such a vast country with a strong military tradition lost was due to the traditional values of Russia, like the out-dated military manoeuvres, the out-dated bayonet against the newest rifles, the inability to support the war effort and the undersupplied armies due to a lack of transport.
The —1880, 2nd ed. However if we consider the long term consequences of the decisions made at this conference, the aim to keep peace was a colossal failure. This would in turn help set up two polarized campaigns in the area, facilitating for a quick fall of dominoes upon the murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The assassination of Franz Ferdinand by a Bosnian Serb in Sarajevo is a clear representation of the way the Balkan states felt about the presence of the european powers in the area. The decision to place Bosnia under Austrian rule and Serbia's distaste for it was a crucial moment in history that ultimately led to the assassination of Franz Ferdinand. Ultimately many were quick to call the conference a success as it avoided a territorial war in Europe and accomplished its goals to prevent conflict and to keep Constantinople as part of the Ottoman Empire.
The Berlin Conference did not initiate European colonization of Africa, but it did legitimate and formalize the process. The proposal received the full support of Beaconsfield, Count Andrássy of Austria-Hungary, and Bismarck, and even the agreement of Shuvalov. Hakan; Sluglett, Peter, eds. Russia was given 2 regions of modern day Romania whereas Austria Hungary was given the sandzak region and Bosnia-Herzegovina. As a result, the German representatives were instructed to demand equal civil rights for the members of all religions in the Balkan countries and the inclusion in the peace treaty of special paragraphs to this effect explicitly providing for their implementation.
In conclusion, the Congress of Berlin of 1878 cannot be considered the greatest achievement of European diplomacy between 1871 and 1914 as it led to tensions in the Balkans and Europe, as well as putting Germany at a significant disadvantage before the start of World War One. You can help by September 2020 Historians have long marked the Berlin Conference as the formalisation of the Some have argued the conference central to imperialism. The Russian representative, Prince Gorchakov, opposed this resolution on the ground that the Jews of Serbia, Romania, and Russia could not be put in the same category with the Jews of Paris, London, Berlin, and Vienna. It met from July 17 through August 2, 1945, in Potsdam, a historic suburb of Berlin. Every attempt at reaching a breakthrough had failed. Conclusion The Congress of Berlin was very important, in that it helped to establish the outline of the modern Balkans and it kept Russian from expanding further into that region and beyond into the Ottoman Empire.