Localisation of brain function essay. Essay On Brain Localization 2022-10-28
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Localization of brain function refers to the idea that certain regions of the brain are responsible for specific cognitive processes or behaviors. This concept has been studied for centuries and has played a crucial role in our understanding of the brain and its functions.
One of the early pioneers in the field of localization of brain function was Paul Broca, a French neurologist who in 1861 described a patient who had lost the ability to speak due to damage to a specific area in the frontal lobe of the brain. This area, now known as Broca's area, is thought to be involved in the production of language.
Another important figure in the study of brain localization was Carl Wernicke, a German neurologist who described a patient with damage to a different area in the brain who could speak but could not understand language. This area, now known as Wernicke's area, is thought to be involved in the comprehension of language.
The discovery of these specific areas of the brain that are responsible for language abilities led to the development of the "classical model" of brain function, which proposes that specific regions of the brain are responsible for specific functions. However, more recent research has shown that the brain is much more interconnected and that many cognitive processes involve the interaction of multiple brain regions.
Another important concept in the study of brain function is lateralization, which refers to the idea that certain cognitive processes are more dominant in one hemisphere of the brain compared to the other. For example, it is commonly believed that the left hemisphere is more dominant for language abilities, while the right hemisphere is more dominant for spatial abilities.
Overall, the study of brain localization and lateralization has contributed greatly to our understanding of the brain and its functions. It has helped researchers identify specific areas of the brain that are involved in different cognitive processes and has allowed for the development of treatments for brain injuries and disorders. However, it is important to note that the brain is a complex organ and that many cognitive processes involve the interaction of multiple brain regions, rather than being limited to a specific area.
Localization of Human Brain Function
This shows how information can be localised to a specific cortical area at the same time as being used elsewhere. Brain Lateralization Essay Example StudyHippo. Etcoff noticed that those with right hemispherical damage were less able to determine who was lying and who was telling the truth while interestingly those with left hemisphere damage were better at detecting the liars than the control who had no brain damage. He demonstrated that damage to a particular area of the brain, more specifically the left frontal lobe, resulted in speech impairment. The only words Broca heard him say were 'God damn' in French due to his frustration over not speaking.
Localisation of Function in the Brain: Importance & Diagram
Corpus Callosotomy Theory 264 Words 2 Pages Split-brain concepts have been explored for almost a century. . This comparison allows for functional associations to be made, as Broca's area affected patient can understand language, and Wernicke's area patient can produce language. The division of labor between the right and left hemispheres is thought to allow for more complex behavior. This may seem obvious, but other organs, such as the liver, do not show localization of function; one part of the liver What Is The Neurosurgical Procedure Lobotomy lobotomy is based on the concept of localization of function.
Essay - Essay discuss research into infradian rhythms 3. The equipotentiality concept and localisation models led to the distributed function model of the brain, which is a compromise between the two models as it shows both; how the brain can adapt and re-organise itself in the event of damage, i. The brain is made up of two large, more or less symmetrical, cerebral hemispheres mounted on a central core of stalk of tissue, which is continuous with the spinal cord. Localisation of Function in the Brain Diagram: Wernicke's Area We can see in the diagram where Wernicke's area is located. This doctrine of localisation of function has been the framework of accumulated knowledge about the brain. Traumatic Brain Injury A tampering rod through the head is how 25-year-old Phineas Gage became the most notable case of Traumatic Brain injury of the 19th century.
Localization Function In The Brain, Sample of Essays
Particular areas are well-known for their relation to specific functions in the brain. Lashley removed 10-50% of the cortex in rats that were learning a maze and found that no area was more important than any other in terms of their ability to learn the maze. Whereas in the working memory model Baddeley and Hitch it is possible as it suggest that short-term memory is far more complex than as purposed in the multi-store model. Evidence for the localisation of function can be seen in multiple parts of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex, the motor and somatosensory cortex, the visual cortex, the auditor cortex, and Broca's and Wernicke's areas. . .
From a once mild mannered individual to a foul mouth and persistent person, Gage became interesting cases in history. There are roughly twenty major hnRNPs which are readily found in large quantities in the nucleus and in some cases in the cytoplasm. Lateralization Of The Brain - Essay Example - Studentshare Here Here Here Here Lateralization of the Brain A recent study by Marc Schmidt 2008 investigatesthe role of lateralization in the brain as it relates to information processing systems. The image displays a multitude of regions that are seemingly random as neither the article nor a legend explains the significance of the borders drawn on the brain. Evidence for Localisation of Function in the Brain The prefrontal cortex , the motor and somatosensory cortex , the visual cortex , the auditor cortex , and Broca's and Wernicke's areas are all areas of The Prefrontal Cortex The prefrontal cortex is responsible for a range of complex cognitive processes and higher- level functions. When Gage had the tampering rod penetrate his skull it completely changed his personality. During his experiments he found that sending a shock to certain parts of the brain would have different reactions.
Essay About: Clear Evidence Of Localisation Of Function And Cerebral Cortex
However they constantly depend on each other. Today this theory has been debated whether the brain actually does localize its functions or not. An accidental explosion drove a tamping iron, 3 cm 1¼ in in diameter and 109 cm 45 in long, through Gage's head. The theory states there are 10 parts of the brain, each of them has an effect that controls the brain. Despite this, they regained full use of their language abilities with only mild language comprehension disorders dyslexia.
You have two options, you can either take on the challenge and get back to where you used to be, or you can sit down when you feel threated by the hard work. This means that different parts of the brain carry out different tasks, for example, vision, voluntary movement and speech. Abnormal functioning of the brain can be caused by abnormal levels of neurotransmitters and hormones. Damage to the somatosensory cortex causes a loss of sensation from the opposite side of the body. Lateralization literally means that certain functions are located in part or total on one side of the brain. He had anterograde amnesia where he had an inability to remember relating to the time since of his operation.
Discuss localisation of function in the brain (16 marks) Flashcards
Overall this makes it almost impossible to map the human brain precisely, while we do have rough models these are broad and we cannot determine whether the brain is further specialized beyond what we can see. Do studies of neurological disorders support the claim that specific language functions are associated with distinct neural structures? Damage to this area can cause issues such as being unable to detect changes in a person's pitch or tone of voice, making conversing with someone and interpreting their intentions extremely difficult. Paterson used brain scans to demonstrate how Wernicke's area was active during a listening task have to understand whats being said and Broca's area was active during a reading task. . Once a nice, caring person, Phineas turned into an aggressive man who could not even keep a job. For the first experiment, I used immunohistochemistry to Localization Of Function Essay One study related to localization of function is the Simon Levay study in 1991.
The left hemisphere is dominant in language skills. It will also tell the students what they need to work on. These motor functions are controlled by another sub section within the brain known as the motor cortex and somatosensory cortex, otherwise known as areas 4 and 6. ESSAY Outline And Evaluate Hemispheric Lateralisation And Split Brain. Most importantly this model demonstrates how more than one area of the brain is involved in making a mental mechanism work. . What is the purpose of homosexuality in the animal kingdom? Broca discovered the area when a patient could only produce the word 'tan'.