Good research paper examples. Effective Research Abstract Examples 2022-10-07
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The pigeonhole principle, also known as the "boxes and pigeons" principle, is a simple but powerful concept in mathematics that states that if there are more objects than available spaces (or "pigeonholes"), then at least one space must contain more than one object. This principle has many applications in various fields, including computer science, economics, and even daily life.
One of the most common applications of the pigeonhole principle is in computer science, specifically in the field of data compression. In data compression, the goal is to represent a large amount of data using a smaller number of bits. One way to do this is by using a technique called "lossless compression," where the original data can be recovered exactly from the compressed version. The pigeonhole principle can be used to prove that certain lossless compression schemes are optimal, meaning that no other scheme can compress the data more efficiently. For example, suppose we have a set of data consisting of the letters A, B, C, and D. If we want to represent this data using only 2 bits per letter, we can use the pigeonhole principle to prove that at least one of the letters must be represented by two different combinations of 2 bits. This means that the data cannot be losslessly compressed using 2 bits per letter, and we must use a different method or a higher number of bits to achieve optimal compression.
Another application of the pigeonhole principle is in economics, specifically in the study of market equilibrium. Market equilibrium occurs when the quantity of a good or service that is being supplied is equal to the quantity that is being demanded. The pigeonhole principle can be used to prove that under certain conditions, market equilibrium is always possible. For example, suppose we have a market for a certain type of good, and there are three sellers who each have a certain number of units of the good to sell. The pigeonhole principle states that if the sellers have a total of more than three units of the good, then at least one of them must have more than one unit to sell. This means that there must be at least one buyer who is willing to purchase more than one unit of the good, which is necessary for the market to reach equilibrium.
In daily life, the pigeonhole principle can also be used to solve practical problems. For example, suppose you have a group of friends who are going on a road trip, and you need to decide which car to take. You have three cars to choose from, each with a different number of seats. The pigeonhole principle states that if you have more friends than the total number of seats in the three cars, then at least one of the cars must have more than one person in it. This can help you decide which car to take, and also serve as a reminder to carpool to save space and reduce environmental impact.
In conclusion, the pigeonhole principle is a simple but powerful concept that has many applications in various fields, including computer science, economics, and daily life. Its versatility and simplicity make it a valuable tool for solving a wide range of problems.
Effective Research Abstract Examples
The effect of bullying on later offending was especially pronounced when bullying was assessed in older children. While much of this work is of interest, showing that bullying has the potential to affect a significant proportion of the population, this review focuses on school bullying, as this is the area that has attracted the most research interest to date. There is no consistently robust evidence to suggest that ethnic minority children are more at risk of being bullied at school. As such, 536 undergraduate students from 82 self-reported majors at a large, public university were sampled. Results suggested that video game addiction is a negatively correlated with expected college engagement, b negatively correlated with college GPA, even when controlling for high school GPA, and c negatively correlated with drug and alcohol violations that occurred during the first year in college. At the same time, they score high on externalizing problems such as aggression, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and conduct problems.
Recent work suggests that bullying might arise out of early cognitive deficits, including language problems, imperfect causal understanding, and poor inhibitory control that lead to decreased competence with peers, which over time develops into bullying. This study explored the pattern of video game usage and video game addiction among male college students and examined how video game addiction was related to expectations of college engagement, college grade point average GPA , and on-campus drug and alcohol violations. A key finding that emerged from this research is that interventions are more likely to be successful if they have the support of teachers and other school personnel and there is a strong commitment to reduce bullying in the school community. The majority of longitudinal studies investigating associations between peer victimization and psychological maladjustment have found evidence for both directions. It also offers a perfect way for researchers to highlight key points. Bully-victims use aggressive strategies to cope with stressors at school that increase the risk of further victimization and rejection from peers. Some initial evidence suggests that maternal warmth has an environmental effect in protecting children from negative outcomes associated with victimization Bowes et al.
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There is less evidence on how equality characteristics influence victimization. View this original abstract for a high school research project on sleep to see how it is still effective. Targeting the whole school involves actions to improve the supervision of the playground, having regular meetings between parents and teachers, setting clear guidelines for dealing with bullying, and using role-playing and other techniques to teach students about bullying. Younger children are also less likely to refrain from bullying others due to socialization pressure. Very little research has examined longitudinal associations between early home environment and subsequent bullying behavior. More recent work on the role of class structure and climate on bullying has shown that variations in peer structure and dominance hierarchies influence the stability of bullying victimization. There is less robust evidence on the effectiveness of peer support programs that include activities such as befriending, peer counseling, conflict resolution, or mediation, and a systematic review suggested their use may lead to increases in bullying victimization.
The only physical characteristic that has been associated with an increased risk of victimization is low physical size and strength. This practice results in at least 10 % of all sixth graders more often boys to be held back 2 years or more, and these older, bigger children are almost twice as likely to bully compared to the class average. Research should neither be blind to nor discouraged by these complexities. Over the last decade, research on bullying is increasingly reliant on longitudinal methodologies to disentangle whether victimization contributes to internalizing problems or vice versa. In kindergarten, the three most commonly held roles are those of the bully, the victim, and the defender.
This study assessed the relationship between cell phone use and actual college grade point average GPA after controlling for known predictors. Fewer students are defenders by middle school, and the majority becomes witnesses or bystanders when bullying takes place. This group displays the highest levels of internalizing problems, including depression, anxiety, low selfesteem, and loneliness. Stability in bullying victimization has been explained in two ways. Similar evidence exists in relation to bullying perpetration, suggesting that those who bully at school tend to exhibit similar behaviors towards their siblings at home.
The results also revealed that poor sleep patterns can lead to concentration and behavior issues. Wolke and Samara 2004 found that more than half of victims of bullying by siblings 50. These findings need to be replicated in larger samples before any safe conclusions can be drawn. School Factors A number of school factors have also been implicated as correlates of bullying behavior. Bullying Prevalence and Continuity National Variation in Bullying There are large variations across countries in the prevalence of bullying perpetration and victimization. Another meta-analysis by Card 2003 found that the strongest correlates of the victimization experience are low self-concept, low physical strength, low school enjoyment, poor social skills, and high internalizing and externalizing problems.
Some research suggests that bullies understand the emotions of others but do not share them. A US longitudinal study that began in 2002 with a sample of about 1,700 adolescents found that being a bully had a stronger negative effect on self-perceived academic competence over time than being a victim after controlling for demographic background variables and baseline academic competence Ma et al. Finally, another area that would benefit from more attention is the investigation of resilience to bullying. Research has identified that bully-victims are the most troubled group among children and adolescents involved in bullying incidents. Children who witness bullying incidents report increased anxiety, less satisfaction with school, and lower academic achievement.
Such passive behavior, although not directly encouraging of bullying, provides a permissive context for bullies that allows them to continue harassing their victims. In the same year in England and Wales, a survey of pupils aged 11—16 found that 22 % had been cyber-bullied at least once or twice in the last couple months Smith et al. . There is also some initial evidence that bullying perpetration is a significant risk factor of poor academic performance. It has been argued, for example, that children who display internalizing behaviors e. Another approach which shows much promise is the cutting-edge attempt to unravel the causes of bullying behavior made by researchers investigating biological and environmental influences and the way these influences interact.