In Chapter 14 of Guns, Germs, and Steel, Jared Diamond discusses the impact of European colonization on the indigenous peoples of the Americas and Australia. He argues that the indigenous populations of these regions were largely decimated by the arrival of Europeans due to a number of factors, including the introduction of diseases to which they had no immunity, the use of guns and other advanced technologies, and the exploitation of their natural resources.
One of the main themes of the chapter is the role of germs in the colonization process. Diamond argues that the Europeans brought with them a number of diseases, such as smallpox, measles, and influenza, to which the indigenous populations had no immunity. These diseases spread rapidly and caused widespread death and suffering, severely weakening the indigenous populations and making them more vulnerable to European conquest.
Another factor contributing to the colonization process was the use of advanced technologies, such as guns, steel weapons, and horses, which gave the Europeans a significant military advantage over the indigenous peoples. This allowed them to easily defeat and conquer indigenous groups, often with relatively small numbers of soldiers.
Finally, Diamond discusses the exploitation of natural resources as a key factor in the colonization process. European colonizers exploited the natural resources of the Americas and Australia, including land, timber, and minerals, to fuel their economies and enrich themselves. This exploitation often came at the expense of the indigenous populations, who were often displaced or exploited in the process.
Overall, Diamond argues that the colonization of the Americas and Australia was a complex process driven by a number of factors, including the introduction of diseases, the use of advanced technologies, and the exploitation of natural resources. These factors, combined with the inherent power imbalances between the Europeans and the indigenous populations, allowed the Europeans to easily conquer and colonize these regions, with devastating consequences for the indigenous peoples.
Worth Books · Summary and Analysis of Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies: Based on the Book by Jared Diamond
Using carbon-dating technology, archaeologists have determined that the first sites of agriculture were Mesopotamia in the Middle East , followed by Mesoamerica and China. In Polynesia, the role of food production in human population movement is made especially clear. C, and highlight the biggest number of occupants. Social hierarchy is also typically greater, with more formalized laws and enforcement, and may involve slavery. The favorable geography of the Europe and Asia landmass resulted in much faster agricultural and technological expansion.
. Interestingly, this positioning and shape matters greatly because it appears that agriculture and innovations spread more rapidly along east-west axes than along north-south axes. The second is the date of publication online or last modification online. Today, there are state democracies with elected officials. Thus, they were able to triumph over native Indonesians, but not over native New Guineans. By popularizing religion, chiefs not only encourage their followers to respect and worship them; they also convince their followers to sacrifice their lives for their chiefdom in times of war.
Regardless of their disparities, groups and clans share a few qualities. There are also occasions when tribes merge voluntarily—for instance, in 19th century America, Native American tribes merged to form the Cherokee state. In New Guinea, there is a group of nomadic people called the Fayu. The results of this remarkable transformation include… Compare and Contrast the Toolkit Used by Hunter-Gatherers with That Used by Farmers. In certain parts of the world, humans began pursuing agriculture because the fertile soil and temperate climate made agriculture a good use of time and resources. While the first four chapters of this section lay out basic background information, the next three chapters turn to more directly analyzing available evidence.
Book Summary: Guns, Germs, and Steel by Jared Diamond
But very few species are actually suitable for domestication, while most efforts to domesticate animals have resulted in failure. Domestication of animals means transforming them into something more useful to humans. New Guinea was advanced compared to the rest of Australia thanks to its environmental advantages. Experience made them able hunters and gatherers, and later made them adept at herding. Due to environmental qualities like soil fertility, availability of domesticable animals, and availability of edible crops, however, it took a longer time for agriculture to supplant hunter-gatherer culture in most other regions.
Diamond doesn't go into great detail about the lists of social factors that encourage technological reception—more important to this chapter are the underlying causes of technological diffusion. Therefore, they have to depend on other people who may have better access to certain resources. Part 2, Chapter 10 Diamond begins Chapter 10 by comparing the major axes of the continents. Today, there are state democracies with elected officials. Furthermore, New Guinea was geographically isolated, which prevented it from receiving the same inflow of technology and ideas as Eurasia did. Many crops spread across Asia with one domestication, while crops like cotton or squash were domesticated in multiple individual areas throughout Mesoamerica. The Greek philosopher Aristotle argued that "man is a social animal," meaning that it's inevitable for people to gather together and form a state.
Diamond concludes his epilogue with an argument for the study of history as a science. Diamond provides a table meant to illustrate the course of human history through a series of events and dates. One technology led to another. Text Preview From Populism to Kleptocracy Jewel centers around the spread of government and religion in this part, watching the job of evangelists in fusing once in the past segregated individuals into more extensive human culture. As a result of all these important environmental advantages, technology arose earlier in Eurasia than it did in other continents, and spread fastest.
Thus, a table like this one helps to illustrate, for the non-expert reader, the evidence he otherwise recounts mainly in the form of anecdotes. As with the other arbitrary categories Diamond uses, they're chosen to give a sense for the large-scale changes in government over time; i. This is another piece of evidence that the type of animals available dictated the domestication in certain regions, not the people living in the region. The terrain was particularly challenging and they were engaged in intermittent warfare between different bands, which led to social fragmentation. Printing is one of the key human inventions: it allows for quick, efficient communication.
Europe and Asia had a huge landmass where there was constant and widespread competition. In other words, they should consider how Australia fits into patterns involving the importance of food production in spurring earlier germs, technology, and political centralization. By and large, Diamond argues, it is easier for ideas, goods, and foods to spread from east to west than it is for them to spread north and south—this is because the Earth spins east-west, meaning that areas with the same latitude share a similar climate and environment. As societies began to domesticate animals, they also became prone to diseases. In the Americas, on the other hand, climate varies drastically from the north to the south. In any case, in what manner can a social tip top live more easily than average people while increasing well known help? Chiefdoms, for example, overcome or join with each other to shape states.
By the 15th century A. However, the same diseases wreaked havoc every time they were introduced to populations that had not previously been exposed to them. Good luck on your assignment! These shared myths led to collaboration and increased power. Dvorak keyboard is one example. Human societies in Australia and New Guinea originated from Asian societies, but went on to develop in isolation from these founding societies.