In literary terms, a symbol is a concrete object or concept that represents an abstract idea. Symbols can be words, objects, characters, or events that are used to represent larger ideas or themes.
One of the most common symbols in literature is the use of color. Different colors can symbolize different emotions or ideas. For example, red can symbolize passion or danger, while white can symbolize purity or innocence. In literature, the use of color can help convey a mood or atmosphere, and can also be used to symbolize larger themes or ideas.
Another common symbol in literature is the use of animals. Different animals can symbolize different characteristics or traits. For example, a snake can symbolize deception or evil, while a dove can symbolize peace or innocence. The use of animals as symbols can help create a more vivid and descriptive portrayal of characters or ideas.
Symbols can also be objects or events that represent larger ideas. For example, in The Great Gatsby, the green light on the Buchanan's dock symbolizes the unattainable goals and dreams of the main character, Jay Gatsby. The use of this symbol helps to convey the theme of the novel, which is the pursuit of the American Dream.
Symbols can be used in literature to add depth and meaning to a story. They can help to convey complex ideas or themes in a more concrete and relatable way. By using symbols, authors can create a rich and layered narrative that engages and resonates with readers on a deeper level. So, symbol has a great importance in literary terms.
Erik Erikson was a psychoanalyst and developmental psychologist who is known for his theory on the eight stages of human development. According to Erikson, each stage is characterized by a specific psychological conflict that must be resolved in order to progress to the next stage.
The first stage, which occurs during infancy, is called "trust vs. mistrust." During this stage, infants rely on their caregivers to meet their basic needs and provide a sense of security. If their needs are consistently met, they will develop a sense of trust in the world around them. If their needs are not met, they may develop a sense of mistrust and insecurity.
The second stage, which occurs during early childhood, is called "autonomy vs. shame and doubt." During this stage, children begin to develop a sense of independence and control over their bodies and actions. If they are allowed to explore and make decisions for themselves, they will develop a sense of autonomy. If they are not given this opportunity, they may feel shame and doubt in their abilities.
The third stage, which occurs during play age, is called "initiative vs. guilt." During this stage, children begin to assert their own will and take initiative in their actions. If they are encouraged and supported in their efforts, they will develop a sense of purpose and direction. If they are discouraged or punished for their actions, they may develop feelings of guilt.
The fourth stage, which occurs during school age, is called "industry vs. inferiority." During this stage, children begin to compare themselves to their peers and may feel a sense of inferiority if they are not able to meet certain expectations or accomplish certain tasks. If they are supported and praised for their efforts, they will develop a sense of industry and confidence in their abilities.
The fifth stage, which occurs during adolescence, is called "identity vs. role confusion." During this stage, adolescents begin to question their values, beliefs, and goals as they search for their own identity. If they are able to find a sense of purpose and direction, they will develop a strong sense of identity. If they are unable to do so, they may experience role confusion.
The sixth stage, which occurs during young adulthood, is called "intimacy vs. isolation." During this stage, young adults seek close, meaningful relationships with others. If they are able to form these relationships, they will develop a sense of intimacy. If they are unable to form these relationships, they may feel isolated and alone.
The seventh stage, which occurs during middle adulthood, is called "generativity vs. stagnation." During this stage, individuals focus on contributing to the next generation and leaving a legacy. If they are able to do so, they will feel a sense of generativity. If they are unable to find meaning and purpose in their work and contributions, they may experience stagnation.
The eighth and final stage, which occurs during late adulthood, is called "integrity vs. despair." During this stage, individuals reflect on their lives and the choices they have made. If they are able to feel content and satisfied with their lives, they will experience a sense of integrity. If they are unable to find meaning and purpose in their lives, they may experience despair.
Erikson's theory of the eight stages of personality development is a widely accepted and influential theory in the field of psychology. It helps to explain the psychological conflicts and challenges that individuals face at different stages of life and how these conflicts can shape their personalities and sense of self.