Synoptic problem definition. biblical literature 2022-10-17
Synoptic problem definition
The synoptic problem is a question that has puzzled biblical scholars for centuries: how can the similarities and differences between the three synoptic gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke) be explained? The synoptic gospels are so named because they present a similar, or synoptic, view of the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. Despite their similarities, there are also significant differences between the three gospels, which has led scholars to try to understand the relationship between them.
One theory to explain the synoptic problem is the two-source hypothesis, which suggests that Matthew and Luke both used Mark's gospel as a source, as well as a hypothetical document known as "Q," which contained sayings and teachings of Jesus. According to this theory, Matthew and Luke both drew from these two sources in order to create their own gospels.
Another theory is the farrer-goulder hypothesis, which suggests that Mark was actually based on the gospel of Matthew, rather than the other way around. This theory tries to explain the differences between the gospels by positing that Mark was written as a summary or an abridged version of Matthew, rather than as a separate and independent source.
A third theory is the Augustinian hypothesis, which proposes that Matthew was the first gospel to be written, and that both Mark and Luke used Matthew as a source for their own gospels. This theory seeks to explain the similarities between the gospels by suggesting that they all derived from a common source, rather than one being dependent on the other.
Regardless of which theory is ultimately accepted, the synoptic problem remains an important and fascinating area of study for biblical scholars. By understanding the relationship between the synoptic gospels, we can gain a deeper appreciation for the complex history and development of the Christian canon, and the diverse perspectives and traditions that have shaped it. So, the synoptic problem is a question that has puzzled biblical scholars for centuries about the similarities and differences between the three synoptic gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke).
What are the solutions to the synoptic problem?
All gospels directly used the Others or none Each gospel drew from a different combination of hypothetical earlier documents. Source Criticism The basic idea with Source Criticism is to try and identify the different sources which were used by the Disciples in producing the different Gospels. What Is the Synoptic Problem? The three gospels contain many of the same stories and sayings, often related in the same relative sequence. But it remains a problem for most of us in the modern world since we are far removed both in time and place from the origins of the Gospel tradition. The Farrer Theory This Theory suggested that the Gospel of Mark was written first and that Mark used it to write his Gospel.
The two-gospel hypothesis or Griesbach hypothesis is that the Gospel of Matthew was written before the Gospel of Luke, and that both were written earlier than the Gospel of Mark. In his careful study, B. It is quite possible that portions of Q have been preserved for us in the agrapha. These amount to more than just differences in words, but differences in how the story is used, details included or omitted, how a passage is related to the Old Testament, even in how the event itself is presented or how the writers understood the event. The Gospel of Luke was written by Luke, a close associate of the apostle Paul. Today, most people accept either the Two Document or Four Source Hypotheses as being most reasonable, probably with the majority leaning to the Four Source Hypotheses. This raises the question as to whether they both used a common source or whether one borrowed from the other.
The Synoptic Problem: The Literary Relationship of Matthew, Mark, and Luke
If not, the frequent agreements between the two independent gospels against the third must originate elsewhere. Stage 6: It is probable that at first the tendency was for churches to use only one of the three Gospels as authoritative, because all three Gospels would not necessarily circulate in the same area. What is most significant about these doublets is that in almost all of them, one half of the doublet is paralleled in Mark and one half in Q. This argument is fallacious, however, because according to Farmer, Luke used Matthew. Thus, Q does not altogether parallel Mark either in quantity number of pericopae or quality identical wording.
What is the Synoptic Problem?
The question of how to explain the similarities and differences among the Synoptic Gospels is called the Synoptic Problem. For many scholars, this is the very weakness of that hypothesis. Luke is thought to have been written last, as it begins by acknowledging other accounts and notes he intends, after his own investigation into all circumstances, to set forth his own account. There is a double problem for the Griesbach school in passages of this sort: 1 Why would Luke omit such rich material, especially since it would well serve the purpose of his gospel? Here again the governing guidance of the Holy Spirit must not be forgotten. Third, even if Jesus spoke in Greek exclusively, how is it that not only his words but his deeds are recorded in verbal identity? Streeter 1924 to modify the Two Source Hypothesis by expanding the number of posited sources. The debris from this impact collected in an orbit around Earth to form the Moon. The redactional emphases in Mark, especially in his stylistic minutiae, are only inconsistently found in Matthew and Luke, while the opposite is not true.
Rather, if any gospel writer employed this motif, it was Matthew not Mark. The agreement between the Gospels was also believed to have been not inter-dependent on one-another but were independent of each other. Even with these, ranging from simple to complex, they can basically be seen in terms of four basic approaches. John Hardon's Modern Catholic Dictionary, © Eternal Life. Altogether there are eighteen possible permutations of this theory, 7 though three have presented themselves as the most plausible: 1 the Augustinian hypothesis: Matthew wrote first and was utilized by Mark whose gospel was used by Luke; 2 the Griesbach hypothesis suggested by J.
The "Synoptic Problem"
What is the main hypothesis for where the Moon came from? There are differences between them in many areas, some more pronounced than others. Redundancy Mark has redundant expressions on several occasions where both Matthew and Luke omit the unnecessary phrases. Just as the Apostles had to speak to certain audiences in their preaching and practice of worship, so also the Gospel writers had to translate the kerygma into the cultural and historical context of the audience for which it was written. Another factor that needs serious consideration is the possibility of the use of written notes as an aid to memory. The simplest hypothesis is Luke relied on Matthew's work or vice versa.
Synoptic Definition & Meaning
Always, of course, our exegesis needs to be done with humility, simply because we are not absolutely sure of all of the data. Though not all of his arguments are of equal weight, both the cumulative evidence and several specific arguments are quite persuasive. If so, how do we know which one is accurate? This brings us to the next important consideration: Were the writers of the Gospels authors in the fullest sense of the word, or were they merely editors and arrangers of a conglomerate of existing traditions, both oral and written? If it is true, then Q existed. Others modified other aspects of the hypotheses, for example R. Even in the Gospels, there are places where the writers stop and explain Jewish customs for example, Mk 7:3 , an indication that the people to whom they were writing were not familiar with them. He traveled throughout the countryside speaking, teaching, performing miracles, and healing people. From this it follows that a basic oral tradition would be formulated that could be transmitted through catechetical instruction.
The Synoptic Problem & Proposed Solutions
Both Matthew and Luke separately used Mark as a source. Such a supposition could be stated in a cumulative way: Would any author with two fairly literary works in front of him alter them throughout into a less literary fashion? In any case, this tradition was the main vehicle for the Gospel message in the 30 or so years after the death of Jesus but before the actual writing of the Gospels. Here one may consider the Jewish oral tradition and its method of transmission. Hypothetically there is therefore no reason why Matthew and Luke could not have been influenced by such accounts in the writing of their Gospels. Why do you ask me about what is good? This basic view of the priority of Matthew as the first Gospel written has remained the popular traditional view well into the 20th century. When tradition gives its testimony e. They listened and watched as he taught.