2nd reich. The SECOND Reich 2022-10-15
The Second Reich, also known as the German Empire, was a period in German history that lasted from 1871 to 1918. It was a time of significant political, economic, and cultural change in Germany, and it had a lasting impact on the country and the world.
The Second Reich was established after the Franco-Prussian War, in which Prussia (led by the Chancellor Otto von Bismarck) defeated France and united the various German states under a single government. Bismarck, who became the first Chancellor of the Second Reich, was a strong and influential leader who implemented a number of important reforms, including the creation of a national parliament and a centralized legal system.
Under Bismarck's leadership, the Second Reich experienced rapid economic growth and industrialization, with the development of a strong and efficient infrastructure and the growth of heavy industries such as steel, coal, and textiles. The country also experienced a period of cultural flourishing, with the emergence of a number of important artists, writers, and intellectuals.
However, the Second Reich was also marked by tensions and conflicts, both internal and external. There were significant social and economic inequalities, and tensions between the ruling elites and the working class often boiled over into strikes and protests. The government was also involved in a number of colonial conflicts, including the Boxer Rebellion in China and the Herero and Namaqua Genocide in South-West Africa (now Namibia).
Despite these challenges, the Second Reich played a significant role in the history of Germany and Europe. It established a strong and unified nation that would go on to become one of the world's leading powers. The legacy of the Second Reich can still be seen in Germany today, as the country continues to grapple with issues of nationalism, identity, and its place in the world.
The First & Second Reich
Reichsgründung 1871: Ereignis, Beschreibung, Inszenierung. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. In practice, a group of Reichsbürger had a meeting that 'elected' the office holders of the Reich e. Nevertheless, the Court insisted that within the territory of the Federal Republic, the GDR could only be considered as one de jure German state amongst others, on the analogy of the pre-existing de jure German states that in 1949 had come together as the Federal Republic; and hence, like them, could never be accorded by the organs of the Federal Republic full recognition as a state in international law; even though the Federal Constitutional Court recognised that, within international law, the GDR was indeed an independent sovereign state. Sie beschränkt staatsrechtlich ihre Hoheitsgewalt auf den "Geltungsbereich des Grundgesetzes".
Bismarck created the modern welfare state in Germany in the 1880s and enacted universal male suffrage in 1871. Hull, Absolute Destruction: Military Culture and the Practices of War in Imperial Germany. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. In 1870, the Catholics formed their own political party, the The Kulturkampf launched by Bismarck 1871—1880 affected Prussia; although there were similar movements in Baden and Hesse, the rest of Germany was not affected. British historian Bismarck's chief concern was that France would plot revenge after its defeat in the Meanwhile, the chancellor remained wary of any foreign policy developments that looked even remotely warlike. There was a significant disparity between the Prussian and German electoral systems. Retrieved 20 January 2010.
How long did the Second Reich last?
The crimes were committed as a retaliation for the involvement of armed civilians during the fighting in the area and the murder of the regimental adjutant. According to the new imperial constitution, the states were in charge of religious and educational affairs; they funded the Protestant and Catholic schools. Journal of Contemporary History. Imperial Germany, 1871—1914: Economy, Society, Culture, and Politics 2nd ed. The Great War 1914 — 18 q. Shortly after the Empire was proclaimed, Bismarck implemented a convention in which his sovereign would only send and receive envoys to and from other German states as the King of Prussia, while envoys from Berlin sent to foreign nations always received credentials from the monarch in his capacity as German Emperor. Not all the European powers, especially those which already managed territories in Africa, were invited.
From the 1890s onwards, the most effective opposition to the monarchy came from the newly formed Having learned from the failure of Bismarck's Reichstag, and became the largest political party in Germany. The imperial crown was hereditary in the ruling house of Prussia, the Bundesrat, Berlin needed only a few votes from the smaller states to exercise effective control. The government remained in the hands of a succession of conservative coalitions supported by right-wing liberals or Catholic clerics and heavily dependent on the Kaiser's favour. In the case of the German Empire, the official name was Deutsches Reich, which is properly translated as "German Empire" because the official position of head of state in the constitution of the German Empire was officially a " Harper's New Monthly Magazine. Retrieved 8 November 2021. No one was completely satisfied with the bargain.
From the social point of view, the Second Reich witnessed, on the initiative of Bismarck, the first policies of a welfare state, with insurance against accidents, sickness benefits and old-age pensions. Madrid—Frankfurt am Main: Iberoamericana—Vervuert in Spanish. Searches of areas in Austria and Italy took place simultaneously. When the eviction started, Ursache opened fire and injured two officers. When did the First Reich end? German Diplomatic Relations 1871—1945: The Wilhelmstrasse And the Formulation Of Foreign Policy. The unified Germany which arose under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck in 1871 was the first entity that was officially called in German Deutsches Reich. The construction of the Many consider Bismarck's foreign policy as a coherent system and partly responsible for the preservation of Europe's stability.
Compliant in the early years of the empire, the Reichstag, by contrast, became less so with time. The American Century in Europe. London: Andrew Dakers, 1945. Retrieved 15 November 2018. Retrieved 24 December 2021. The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Europe: Volume 2, 1870 to the Present. As more-democratic parties came to dominate in the Reichstag, governing became more difficult for the Kaiser and his officials.
In the process, he created a system with a serious flaw. The sleeping lion of Great Britain woke up with a start and growled. What was the 1st German Reich? Retrieved 21 September 2020. The Second Reich: Kaiser Wilhelm II and his Germany. Travel by road caused the steel tracks of the tanks and assault guns to wear out; vehicles broke down frequently; and fuel was in short supply. Retrieved 21 October 2016. Conceived as an upper house to the Reichstag, the Bundesrat, like the Reichstag, was required to vote on legislation drawn up by the government before it became law.
The SECOND Reich
McRae, Canadian Yearbook of International Law 2005, Vol. Band: Gesamtdeutschland, Anhaltische Staaten und Baden. New York: Random House. The Prussian-led unification was welcomed by some as the creation of this Machtstaat, a strong German empire which focused around a new emperor, the Kaiser. Retrieved 21 March 2021. Journal of Modern History. Journal of Southern African Studies.
Second Reich Militaria
For example, both postage stamps and currency were issued for the empire as a whole. Polish and other A few 0. Retrieved 25 March 2009. The Kaiser had to contend with a parliament elected by the people in a secret vote. Deutsches Reich, or "German Empire", Verfassung des Deutschen Reiches , which was published two days later. La Das Reich: 2e SS Panzer-Division in French.