Erikson lifespan development. Erikson's Lifespan Development 2022-10-28
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Erik Erikson's theory of lifespan development is a psychoanalytic theory that describes the psychological development of individuals throughout their lifetime. Erikson believed that the human psyche is constantly evolving, and that individuals go through a series of eight stages of development, each with its own challenges and opportunities.
The first stage of Erikson's theory is the trust versus mistrust stage, which occurs during the first year of life. At this stage, babies rely on their caregivers to meet their basic needs, and they develop a sense of trust or mistrust based on their experiences. If caregivers are consistently responsive and nurturing, the baby will develop a sense of trust in the world and in others. If caregivers are neglectful or inconsistent, the baby may develop a sense of mistrust and insecurity.
The second stage is the autonomy versus shame and doubt stage, which occurs during the toddler years. At this stage, children are learning to explore the world around them and to assert their independence. They may feel a sense of shame or doubt when they encounter new challenges or when they are unable to achieve their goals. If caregivers provide a supportive and nurturing environment, children will develop a sense of autonomy and self-confidence. If caregivers are overly controlling or critical, children may develop a sense of shame and doubt about their abilities.
The third stage is the initiative versus guilt stage, which occurs during the preschool years. At this stage, children are learning to initiate activities and to take charge of their own play. They may feel guilty when they break rules or when they act aggressively. If caregivers encourage children to explore and take initiative, they will develop a sense of purpose and direction. If caregivers are overly critical or punitive, children may develop a sense of guilt and hesitation about their actions.
The fourth stage is the industry versus inferiority stage, which occurs during the school-age years. At this stage, children are learning to develop skills and to achieve in school and other areas of life. They may feel a sense of inferiority if they are unable to measure up to their peers or if they are unable to complete tasks. If caregivers provide a supportive and nurturing environment, children will develop a sense of competence and a sense of pride in their achievements. If caregivers are overly critical or dismissive, children may develop a sense of inferiority and a lack of confidence in their abilities.
The fifth stage is the identity versus identity confusion stage, which occurs during adolescence. At this stage, adolescents are trying to figure out who they are and what they want to do with their lives. They may feel confused about their values, goals, and identities. If caregivers provide a supportive and nurturing environment, adolescents will develop a sense of identity and a sense of direction in life. If caregivers are overly controlling or critical, adolescents may struggle with identity confusion and may have difficulty making decisions.
The sixth stage is the intimacy versus isolation stage, which occurs during young adulthood. At this stage, individuals are trying to form close relationships and to find a sense of belonging. They may feel isolated if they are unable to form close connections with others. If individuals are able to form close and meaningful relationships, they will develop a sense of intimacy and a sense of belonging. If individuals are unable to form close relationships, they may feel isolated and disconnected.
The seventh stage is the generativity versus stagnation stage, which occurs during middle adulthood. At this stage, individuals are focused on contributing to the next generation and to society as a whole. They may feel stagnant if they are unable to find meaning and purpose in their lives. If individuals are able to find meaning and purpose through their work or through their relationships, they will develop a sense of generativity and a sense of fulfillment. If individuals are unable to find meaning and purpose, they
Lifespan Development and Erikson's Stages of Development
Erik Erikson was a German psychologist who In what became known as the eight stages of development theory, Erikson provided insights into both social and psychological development. This stage occurs between the ages of 18 months to approximately age two to three years. . Take, for example, water that you poured into the short, fat glass: You can pour water from the fat glass back to the thin glass and still have the same amount minus a couple of drops. He became interested in this area when he was asked to test the IQ of children and began to notice that there was a pattern in their wrong answers.
Treatment may involve psychotherapy and medication. By developing a sense of trust, the infant can have hope that as new crises arise, there is a real possibility that other people will be there as a source of support. Consequently, psychologists have not fully adopted this approach, although they recognize the importance of the ecology of the individual. Identity achievement refers to those who after exploration have made a commitment. Mistrust infancy : The basic and fundamental psychological task is for infants to develop a sense that their needs will be met by the outside world. The age stages of prenatal will display physical and emotional domain, Infancy 0-2 will portray social and emotional domain, young children 2-6 will show cognitive and social domain, middle childhood 6-12 will display socio-cultural and moral domain and adolescence will portray nature vs.
These stages, however, can be resolved successfully at a later time. The virtue of this stage is hope. According to Erikson, this is important to the process of forming a strong identity and developing a sense of direction in life. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. If the needs of an infant are well taken care of, they develop trust in their caregivers. Adults can recognize, for example, that what seems to be an ideal solution to a problem at work involving a disagreement with a colleague may not be the best solution to a disagreement with a significant other. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt.
The hallmark of scientific investigation is that of following a set of procedures designed to keep questioning or skepticism alive while describing, explaining, or testing any phenomenon. A second theory that applies is Micro, Mezzo and Macro levels of conceptualization. We are born with the ability to notice stimuli, store, and retrieve information. When people reach their 40s, they enter the time known as middle adulthood, which extends to the mid-60s. Erik Erikson was a famous 20th-century German-American psychologist Erik Erikson was a famous 20th-century German-American psychologist. This leads to restlessness and isolation from your friends, family, and society. Thus, a toddler living in shame and self-doubt will progress to preschool years to face new conflicting concepts Initiative vs Guilt.
An egocentric child is not able to infer the perspective of other people and instead attributes his own perspective. It is important to realize that even those people who have the most sophisticated, post-conventional reasons for some choices may make other choices for the simplest of pre-conventional reasons. The input of those is modified by the cognitive and biological state of the individual as well. They may feel a sense of hopelessness when faced with crisis. According to Piaget, the highest level of cognitive development is formal operational thought, which develops between 11 and 20 years old. Basic virtues are characteristic strengths used to resolve subsequent crises. Stagnation The focus of this stage is to contribute to society and the next generation.
. For example, a child who never establishes trust in infancy may grow into an adult who struggles with trust in romantic relationships. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of love. In response to role confusion or identity crisis, an adolescent may begin to experiment with different lifestyles e. Basic virtues are characteristic strengths which the ego can use to resolve subsequent crises.
What Are the 8 Stages of Life According to Erikson?
Although people of all ages may experience issues with trust, the infancy stage is where the challenge is most potent. Those who are unsuccessful at resolving this stage may either withdraw further into social isolation or become lost in the crowd. Although her outfits might not be appropriate for the situation, her input in such basic decisions has an effect on her sense of independence. One particular aspect that makes them most attractive is their ability to adapt to change and stress. During each stage an individual attains personality traits, either beneficial or pathological. New York, NY: International University Press Freud, S. According to his theory of psychosocial development, an individual typically passes through eight stages during their life.
Erik Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development
Erikson does not refer much to the resilience of humans in his theory, except to state that people can go back and positively resolve stages that were previously negatively actualized. Mistrust Infants depend on caregivers, usually parents, for basic needs such as food. There are different areas in a lifespan such as The Importance Of Communication In Lifespan Communication Communication is a very interesting thing to study. . Vygotsky differed with Piaget in that he believed that a person not only has a set of abilities, but also a set of potential abilities that can be realized if given the proper guidance from others. Such skills illustrate the child's growing sense of independence and autonomy.