Utopia book 2. Utopia Book 2: Of Their Military Discipline Summary & Analysis 2022-10-14
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Utopia is a book written by Sir Thomas More in the 16th century, and it is considered one of the most important works of political philosophy in the Western tradition. In Utopia, More presents a vision of an ideal society in which people live in harmony and happiness, free from the problems and conflicts that plague society.
In Utopia, Book 2, More elaborates on the social, economic, and political structure of the utopia he has described in Book 1. He describes a society in which everyone works and contributes to the common good, and in which there is no private property or wealth. Instead, everyone is given what they need to live a comfortable and fulfilling life, and all resources are shared equally among the members of the community.
One of the main features of Utopia, as described in Book 2, is its system of governance. More describes a society in which power is held by a council of wise and just individuals, who are chosen by the people to represent their interests and make decisions on their behalf. This council is responsible for making laws and enforcing them, and for ensuring that everyone in the community is treated fairly and justly.
Another key aspect of Utopia, as described in Book 2, is its system of education. More believes that education is crucial for the development of a just and harmonious society, and so he advocates for universal education for all members of the community. In Utopia, children are educated from a young age in a variety of subjects, including literature, science, and mathematics, as well as practical skills such as agriculture and craftsmanship.
Overall, Utopia, Book 2 presents a vision of a society that is fundamentally different from the one we live in today. While it may seem like a utopia is impossible to achieve, More's ideas about equality, justice, and education continue to inspire and challenge readers to think about the ways in which we can create a better world for all people.
Utopia Book 2: Conclusion Summary & Analysis
Stewards from each hall go to the market to get food for the meals. There are two kinds of bodily pleasure. The fountainhead of their water source is fortified against possible attack, and the entire town is surrounded by a fortified wall with "towers and forts. This purposeful disconnection makes it easier for a utopia to develop, but it also renders it unrelatable to the outside world, and divorced from many of the historical troubles that real societies must deal with. Here the Utopians live together in families of at least forty people, along with two bondmen, or slaves. This is because there are no idle serving men here, no idle women, no idle priests, no idle landowners, and no idle able-bodied beggars. Another custom of the council is to not debate a matter on the day it is proposed, but to wait till the next meeting.
Utopia Book 2: Of Their Trades, and Manner of Life Summary & Analysis
The second kind of bodily pleasure is that which comes from good health, which is the foundation and ground of all other pleasures. The Utopians employ the Zapoletes as mercenaries and have these wild warriors do their fighting for them whenever possible. In adjudicating a case, the attempt to commit a crime is not distinguished from the criminal act itselfa criminal is not redeemed by his inability to successfully complete the attempted act. One example is the fact that Utopians ban all lawyers as "clever practitioners and sly interpreters of the law. The Utopians especially detest that people practically worship rich people whom they know will never give them so much as a farthing, a single cent. London has the Thames River and a smaller stream called the Fleet Ditch, but these are far dirtier than Utopia's Anyder River and freshwater spring.
The island itself is about 200 miles broad and 500 miles long, in roughly the shape of a crescent. But a good deal of freedom is sacrificed. Private ceremonies and practices may be freely held at home. Amaurot sits on the banks of the Anyder River, the largest river in Utopia. The Utopians promote religious unity by holding worship in the same churches for all—this creates a more communal environment for worship and, consequently, a more unified society. Hythloday begins his discourse on the island of Utopia by describing its geography. Troops will fight harder if they are literally defending their own kin.
Utopia Book 2: Of the Travelling of the Utopians Summary & Analysis
But if you need to know the way to Utopia before you can arrive there, is it even really possible to arrive at all? Every door is left unlocked because "there being no property among them, every man may freely enter into any house. The Utopians have multiple safeguards to protect the society against the threats of tyranny, fraud and deception. The equitable distribution of labor enables Utopia to produce a surplus of goods. When forced to retreat themselves, the Utopians excel in staging cunning ambushes, which often turn the tide of battle. People in quarrels reconcile, because Utopians fear worshipping with a troubled conscience.
Utopia Book 2: Of Their Military Discipline Summary & Analysis
The streets are all 20 feet wide, "convenient for all carriage, and are well-sheltered from the winds. Nothing can be confirmed and ratified in the commonwealth unless it has been debated for three days in the council. Atheists cannot argue their views among the general public, but they are encouraged to argue with priests, in the hopes that they will see the madness of their irreligious ways. Finally, because every person is part of society in nature, it is only natural that in his pursuit of pleasure he does not harm his fellows. The Utopians love health and respect human life, so it makes good sense that they would rather satisfy their objectives through intelligence than through blood.
Utopia Book 2: Of Their Magistrates Summary & Analysis
There is no exchange of money and no direct exchange of goods for "there is plenty of everything" and no reason to hoard goods or deny them to others. The Utopians develop their opinions through socialization and education. Magistrates are elected from groups of families and the highest of these magistrates serve in the Senate and elect the ruler of the people. Early political thinkers agreed with the Utopian regard for justice and happiness, but there is considerable divergence within these viewpoints. The Utopians follows a keen sense of virtue and rationalism. The common dining halls feature brief lectures or readings followed by discussion. The Utopians despise and mock people who try to predict the future, like soothsayers.
One reason the Utopians honor religious freedom is practical: religious disagreement causes strife in a commonwealth, which leaves them vulnerable to invaders. Instead, the Utopians store up gold, silver, and debt abroad for virtually one purpose alone: to avoid war altogether, or to hire mercenaries to fight on their behalf. Someone who dies an unwilling death is buried, but people who die willing, happy deaths are celebrated, praised, and cremated. We might also think that people should have the freedom to travel alone. The Utopians worship on Trapemernes days after fasting to give thanks to God; they worship on Cynemernes days to pray for fortune and success in the coming days.
Utopia Book Two (second half) Summary and Analysis
Utopians import iron, which they lack at home, and they also bring back vast quantities of silver and gold. The Utopians avoid, however, those things that other people only imagine to be pleasurable despite nature, because once the mind is possessed by false pleasure it can no longer delight in the true. They are constitutionally incapable of waste, and so any surplus is always put to good use. Moreover, truth is described as something that can be pragmatically approached and conclusively determined. When the Utopian army retreats, the priests intercept their pursuers and often succeed in making peace.
Utopia Book 2: Discourse on Utopia Summary & Analysis
The story about the monkey parodies the sea monsters that inevitably appear in Renaissance travel narratives—the scariest thing for Hythloday is losing pages of his precious books. It is perhaps inconsistent of the Utopians, who value people more than money, to kill over trade disputes. This narrative strategy highlights the tension between enjoying a free philosophical exchange in pursuit of truth and enforcing and defending the truth once it is known. The Archphilarchs bring with them two Philarchs, a new couple every day. The "vast majority" of Utopians are monotheists who believe exclusively in one god as creator.