Homestead strike definition. What does Homestead Strike mean? 2022-10-19

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The Homestead Strike was a labor dispute that occurred in Homestead, Pennsylvania in 1892. It involved the Carnegie Steel Company and its workers, who were members of the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers (AAISW). The strike was characterized by violence, intimidation, and ultimately, defeat for the workers.

The dispute arose when Carnegie Steel, which was then one of the largest steel producers in the world, announced plans to cut wages and reduce the number of workers at its Homestead plant. The AAISW, which represented the workers, rejected the proposed wage cuts and called for a strike. Carnegie Steel responded by hiring hundreds of Pinkerton guards, a private security firm, to protect the plant and break the strike.

The situation quickly escalated, and on July 6, 1892, a group of Pinkerton guards attempted to cross the Monongahela River to reach the Homestead plant. They were met by a group of workers who were armed and ready to defend the strike. A gunfight ensued, and several people were killed or injured on both sides.

The violence continued over the next several weeks, with both sides engaging in acts of intimidation and violence. Carnegie Steel eventually brought in replacement workers and resumed production, effectively breaking the strike. The workers were forced to return to work on the company's terms, and the AAISW was effectively dismantled.

The Homestead Strike is significant for a number of reasons. It was one of the most violent labor disputes in American history and marked the beginning of a new era of industrial conflict in the United States. It also had a lasting impact on labor relations in the steel industry, as Carnegie Steel and other companies became increasingly resistant to unionization efforts.

Despite the defeat of the workers at Homestead, the strike was seen as a turning point in the labor movement. It galvanized support for unions and helped to pave the way for future labor reforms. Today, the Homestead Strike is remembered as a defining moment in American labor history.

Homestead Definition & Meaning

homestead strike definition

His indirect actions helped fuel a strike on his mill. These works, therefore, will be necessarily non-union after the expiration of the present agreement. With heads uncovered, to distinguish them from the mill hands, they passed along between two rows of guards armed with Winchesters. As Pinkerton agents arrived via boat, workers and townspeople gathered to stop their arrival. The Amalgamated Association, severely damaged by the strike, nearly disintegrated. Considering the profit margin of Carnegie Steel, union leaders requested a wage increase. Twelve people lay dead, and townspeople beat several agents upon surrendering.

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Homestead Strike 1892

homestead strike definition

The company quickly built bunk houses, dining halls and kitchens on the mill grounds to accommodate the strikebreakers. The Pinkerton tug departed with the wounded agents, leaving the barges stranded. Just before noon, a sniper shot and killed another Pinkerton agent. Frick provided a counteroffer of a 22% decrease in wages. Brody argues that Carnegie felt Frick was doing the right thing by bringing in strikebreakers and busting the union, but Frick was doing a poor job of it. Intermittent gunfire from both sides continued throughout the morning.

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The Homestead Strike Flashcards

homestead strike definition

Some in the crowd threw stones at the barges, but strike leaders shouted for restraint. He succeeded in shooting himself in the stomach, and died. The battle was one of the most serious disputes in U. Pattison to attempt to persuade him that law and order had been restored in the town. Krause points out that much of the press' lurid reporting played heavily on misogynistic ideals of women as respectable and docile. The press also often described the women of the town as 'Hungarians,' playing on nativist hatreds.

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Homestead Strike

homestead strike definition

But the real talks were taking place between McCleary and Weihe in McCleary's office. Andrew Carnegie continued to profit from his steel mill despite his tarnished reputation. I am willing to take an oath that the workmen fired first, and that the Pinkerton men did not shoot until some of their number had been wounded. With only 192 out of more than 3,800 strikers in attendance, the Homestead chapter of the AA voted, 101 to 91, to return to work on November 20, 1892. Operations manager Henry C. There are several historical markers as well as a metal commemorative sign with the US Steel logo that reads "In Honor Of The Workers.

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What does Homestead Strike mean?

homestead strike definition

He also drafted a notice which Frick never released withdrawing recognition of the union. Supporting Foner, see Krause, p. The strike had collapsed so much that the state militia pulled out on October 13, ending the 95-day occupation. The strike only lasted about four months and ended with Carnegie Steel re-opening to its' full operating status. When the tug attempted to retrieve the barges at 10:50 a. . The final result was a major defeat for the union and a setback for efforts to unionize steelworkers.

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Homestead_Strike : definition of Homestead_Strike and synonyms of Homestead_Strike (English)

homestead strike definition

Backed by 2,000 townspeople, the strikers drove off a trainload of strikebreakers on July 10. Anarchist Alexander Birkman attempted to kill Frick but only succeeded in wounding him. As the strike continued, Frick hired Pinkerton Detectives to protect the plant. A special train arrived at 12:30 a. The AA affiliate at Union Mills held out until August 14, 1893. Frick immediately countered with a 22% wage decrease that would affect nearly half the union's membership and remove a number of positions from the bargaining unit.

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Definition of Homestead Strike in U.S. History.

homestead strike definition

Weihe wanted to prevent further trouble at homestead, so he pleaded to Frick that he would confer with representatives of the Amalgamated to return to homestead and stop the riot. Mid-August 1892 Carnegie Steel Works resumed operations. At the same time, Frick hired s cabs. The Fall of the House of Labor: The Workplace, the State, and American Labor Activism, 1865-1925. The steelworkers did not strike alone as workers from the Knights of Labor decided to walk out in support. A race war between nonunion black and white workers in the Homestead plant broke out on July 22, 1892. But Foner says that the strikers tore down the fence near the water's edge.

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homestead strike definition

Union members took potshots at the ships from their rowboats and the steam-powered launch. Workers, fed up with the working conditions, started to strike the next day. Three AA members were found innocent of all charges. All factory work posed an incredible danger, with the working class seeing death and personal injuries on an unprecedented scale. July 6, 1892 Violence erupted between Carnegie Steel workers and Pinkerton detectives hired by Henry Clay Frick. Many lodges disbanded, their members disillusioned. Twelve people died, and several agents were brutally beaten.

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homestead strike definition

Strikers on the steam launch fired a few random shots at the barges, then withdrewā€”blowing the launch whistle to alert the plant. Bridge, The Inside History of the Carnegie Steel Company New York: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1903; rev. A Congressional View," North American Review Vol. The crowd tore down the barbed-wire fence and strikers and their families surged onto the Homestead plant grounds. A year later, it was down to 8,000. July 23, 1892 Assassination attempt on Henry Clay Frick by Alexander Berkman.

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homestead strike definition

New York: International Publishers, 1955. Criticized as a hypocrite, Carnegie would spend years repairing his public image. Meanwhile, Frick locks workers out of the factory. Two agents were beaten as horrified town officials looked on. But once emotions had died down, Pattison felt the need to act. The Pinkertons returned fire, and four more strikers were killed one by shrapnel sent flying when cannon fire hit one of the barges. Cause of Homestead Strike 1892 Deepening tensions between laborers and factory owners increased with the organization of workers gathering together to form labor unions.

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