Absorptive state. Metabolic States of the Body 2022-11-01
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The absorptive state, also known as the absorptive capacity, is a concept in business and economics that refers to an organization's ability to effectively acquire, assimilate, and utilize new knowledge and information. This includes the ability to learn from experience, adapt to new technologies and markets, and integrate new ideas and practices into the organization's operations.
The absorptive state is important because it plays a crucial role in an organization's ability to innovate and remain competitive in a rapidly changing business environment. Organizations with a high absorptive state are better able to adapt to new challenges and opportunities, and are more likely to succeed in the long run.
There are several factors that can impact an organization's absorptive state. One important factor is the organization's culture and leadership. Organizations with a culture that values learning and encourages experimentation and innovation are more likely to have a high absorptive state. Similarly, leaders who foster a culture of continuous learning and encourage employees to challenge the status quo are more likely to create an environment that is conducive to the development of an organization's absorptive state.
Another factor that can impact an organization's absorptive state is the availability of resources. Organizations that have access to a diverse range of resources, including financial resources, human resources, and technological resources, are more likely to have a high absorptive state. This is because these resources provide the necessary support and infrastructure for the organization to effectively acquire, assimilate, and utilize new knowledge and information.
In addition to culture and resources, the absorptive state can also be impacted by external factors, such as the organization's industry and the level of competition within that industry. Organizations operating in highly competitive industries may have a higher absorptive state due to the pressure to continuously innovate and adapt to new challenges and opportunities.
In conclusion, the absorptive state is a crucial concept in business and economics that refers to an organization's ability to effectively acquire, assimilate, and utilize new knowledge and information. It plays a vital role in an organization's ability to innovate and remain competitive, and is influenced by factors such as culture, resources, and industry conditions. By understanding and actively working to improve their absorptive state, organizations can better navigate a rapidly changing business environment and position themselves for long-term success.
24.5: Metabolic States of the Body
What is important in the absorptive state quizlet? These findings do not distinguish the individual roles of insulin and of glucagon. Glucagon acts upon the liver cells, where it inhibits the synthesis of glycogen and stimulates the breakdown of stored glycogen back into glucose. Distinct mechanisms are in place to facilitate energy storage, and to make stored energy available during times of fasting and starvation. The postabsorptive state, or the fasting state, occurs when the food has been digested, absorbed, and stored. It helps to maintain body temperature and is necessary for normal bodily functions.
During the absorptive state, glucose is the main fuel for most tissues of the body, which utilize it by glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and other pathways. Finally, extended fasting has been recommended as therapy for various conditions by health professionals of most cultures, throughout history, from ancient to modern. Simple sugars are sent to the liver where they are converted to glucose. If the subject fasted so that the main energy source was fat, an RQ of 0. How are triglycerides processed in the absorptive state? Liebig 1842 demonstrated that carbohydrate, fat, and protein were all oxidized in the body and that corrections had to be applied to the amount of energy obtained from proteins because of their incomplete oxidation to urea. As early as 1798 Count Rumford had observed that heat was produced when horses were working. Because glucose levels are very low during starvation, glycolysis will shut off in cells that can use alternative fuels.
Uptake of oxygen and elimination of carbon dioxide — The body uses oxygen to break down food for energy and eliminates carbon dioxide as a waste product. However, chronic insulin and glucagon deficiencies have been proven to cause hyperglycemia and, therefore, strongly suggest that insulin is the predominant factor of postabsorptive glucose levels. By inhibiting glucose oxidation, fatty acids and ketone bodies so contribute to a glucose-sparing effect, an essential survival mechanism for the brain during starvation. Figure 2 summarizes the metabolic processes occurring in the body during the postabsorptive state. Insulin also promotes the synthesis of protein in muscle. Postabsorptive State: Resting after absorption of meal. The anterior pituitary produces seven hormones.
All except leucine and lysine which are oxidized solely to acetyl-CoA can be used in net synthesis of α-ketoglutarate to enhance glutamate synthesis. This main product of fat digestion is first broken down to fatty acids and glycerol through hydrolysis using lipoprotein lipase. This oppositional action of glucagon toward insulin is shared by cortisol, epinephrine, and growth hormone and are all grouped together as counter-regulatory hormones. When the body once again enters the absorptive state after fasting, fats and proteins are digested and used to replenish fat and protein stores, whereas glucose is processed and used first to replenish the glycogen stores in the peripheral tissues, then in the liver. Kidney releases serine and small but significant quantities of alanine into the blood, and takes up glutamine, proline, and glycine.
These intermediates and the unmetabolized dietary amino acids are transferred to the portal blood and then to the liver for further metabolism. Insulin's major role is to switch the body from a fasting to an absorptive state of metabolism. Glucose supplying reactions-reactions which generate glucose 2. Model experiments using hydrogen peroxide to oxidize butyric acid in vitro showed acetoacetate was formed, again supporting ß-oxidation. However, even an occasional missed meal can throw off the balance between food intake and certain diabetes medications. Click to view a larger image.
The RQ is the molar ratio of the amount of carbon dioxide produced in the oxidation of a substance to the amount of oxygen needed for that oxidation. It has been known for many years that alloxan and streptozotocin can cause β-cell necrosis and diabetes in rodents. What hormones are released in a postabsorptive state between meals? The peripheral tissues preferentially absorb glucose. Digestion begins the moment you put food into your mouth, as the food is broken down into its constituent parts to be absorbed through the intestine. In the fasting state, the intestinal mucosa depends on other tissues for metabolites to provide energy and precursors for protein and nucleotide synthesis to maintain the rapid cell division characteristic of that tissue. An adipocyte contains a small amount of cytoplasm, which surrounds a large lipid droplet.
After these stores have been replenished, excess glucose that is absorbed by the liver will be converted into triglycerides and fatty acids for long-term storage. The aetiology of IDDM is largely unknown, although in some cases it may be due to a viral infection. Once the energy needs for humans had been determined it was possible to consider how the energy should be provided and what, if any, were the essential constituents in the diet. Respiratory quotients RQ were also derived, associated with the utilization of the different foods. This spares glucose for the brain and thus protein breakdown is minimized.
Equal amounts of 13C were found in the carboxyl and carbonyl carbon atoms, a finding apparently incompatible with either the classical ß-oxidation theory of Knoop and Dakin or the multiple alternate oxidation hypothesis. The order in which these products were metabolized from the phenyl-labeled propionic acid was not clear, but it was concluded that fatty acid oxidation proceeded by a ß-oxidative attack, two carbon atoms at a time being split off from the carboxyl end of the molecule. How does the body meet this constant demand for energy? Insight into the process of fatty acid oxidation came from the work of Knoop 1904. Glutamate is a precursor of γ-aminobutyrate; tyrosine of dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine; and tryptophan of serotonin, all of which are neurotransmitters. Depending on the amounts and types of nutrients ingested, the absorptive state can linger for up to 4 hours. This acetoacetyl CoA is subsequently converted into β-hydroxybutyrate, the most common ketone in the body.
Other hormones, including glucagon, epinephrine, and growth hormone, can also affect the absorptive state. Patients with this disorder, also known as Canavan dystrophy, are usually of Eastern European Jewish heritage. The hormone acts on most tissues of the body, but muscle, adipose tissue and liver are quantitatively the most important. This allows them to freely pass through capillary walls. Since BCAAs are EAAs i.