Assess the different psychological approaches to study. Psychological Perspectives 2022-10-07
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There are several psychological approaches to studying human behavior, each with its own unique perspective and methodologies. These approaches include the psychoanalytic approach, the behavioral approach, the cognitive approach, the evolutionary approach, and the humanistic approach.
The psychoanalytic approach, developed by Sigmund Freud, emphasizes the role of the unconscious mind and early childhood experiences in shaping an individual's personality and behavior. Freud believed that the human psyche consists of three parts: the id, which represents primal urges and desires; the ego, which mediates between the id and the external world; and the superego, which represents moral and ethical standards. According to Freud, conflicts and tensions between these three parts of the psyche can manifest in various psychological disorders, such as neurosis and psychosis.
The behavioral approach, developed by John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner, focuses on the role of external stimuli and reinforcement in shaping behavior. According to this approach, behavior is learned through classical and operant conditioning, where an individual learns to associate a particular behavior with a particular consequence. This approach emphasizes the importance of observable behavior, rather than internal mental states, in understanding and predicting human behavior.
The cognitive approach, developed by Noam Chomsky and Jean Piaget, emphasizes the role of mental processes such as perception, attention, memory, and language in shaping behavior. According to this approach, individuals actively process and interpret information from their environment, and this processing plays a significant role in shaping their behavior.
The evolutionary approach, developed by Charles Darwin and others, emphasizes the role of natural selection in shaping behavior. According to this approach, behaviors that are advantageous for survival and reproduction are more likely to be passed down to future generations, while behaviors that are disadvantageous are less likely to be passed down. This approach can be used to understand how certain behaviors, such as aggression and mating behaviors, have evolved in humans and other species.
The humanistic approach, developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, emphasizes the unique qualities of each individual and their inherent drive towards self-actualization. According to this approach, individuals have the capacity for personal growth and self-determination, and their behavior is driven by their personal goals and values.
Overall, each of these approaches offers a different perspective on understanding human behavior and can be used in combination to provide a more comprehensive understanding of an individual's behavior. While each approach has its own strengths and limitations, they all contribute valuable insights into the complex and multifaceted nature of human behavior.
Approaches in Psychology: Explanation & Types
The approach highlights the importance of early childhood experiences. Scientists use this approach by analyzing basic sensations and thoughts. The maladaptive cognitions have said to be which psychologically disturbed individuals could possibly be a result instead of a cause. Psychology tends to steer towards finding reasons for a person or animals actions in an attempt to resolve them. An example can be a mouse in a cage that is really thirsty. In addition, the research is often conducted in a lab, so it has low ecological validity. The first approach I will be discussing is the Behaviourist approach of Psychology.
Unit 8 Mi: Assess Different Psychological Approaches to...
There are three main aspects within this approach which relates to the study of psychology, they are comparative method, physiology and investigation of inheritance. The hierarchy of needs is a model used by humanists to understand human motivation. The cognitive approaches in psychology explain human behaviour using the information-processing model or findings from neuroscientific research. Lying to participants about the nature of the experiment, as Milgram 1974 did in his studies of obedience to authority, is considered morally wrong. Society, in this view, is meant to meet the biological and social needs of the members of that society.
Assess different psychological approaches to study
By doing so, the only thing they are accomplishing is pointing the finger. Therefore, you can imagine reactions to animal organ transplants. This form of cognitive behavioural therapy has a lot of appeal as it focuses on the human thought. These various approaches allow for new questions to be asked. His work later influenced variations on this approach, such as those used by Carl Jung and Erik Erikson.
You can play on the playground if you stop making such a fuss! For instance, the Little Hans case study; which was created by Freud; which is about the treatment of a young boy who had developed a phobia of horses. Understanding the various approaches broadens the perspective on why humans think and act the way they do. Physiology focuses on how hormones and the nervous system work. This term personal agency is based on the choices individuals make within their lives, the paths the individuals choice to follow and their costs. The Psychodynamic Approach Psychoanalysis studies the unconscious mind to resolve behavioral issues.
Assess Different Psychological Approaches to Study.
How changes in the structure and function to hormones and the nervous system can affect behaviour, plus looking at the way the brain functions. Individuals are encouraged to try out new behaviours which, in turn, lead to more positive responses that can then be reinforced by other service users and staff members. P2: Explain different psychological approaches to health practice. Idiographic Behavioural Behaviour is learned from our experiences; it can be learned through association or reinforcement. Structuralism Structuralism studies how the accumulation of one's life experiences creates structures in the mind and causes certain behaviors. Learned Helplessness Essay 1215 Words 5 Pages Eventually, the animal will stop trying to avoid the stimulus and behave as if it is utterly helpless to change the situation.
assess different psychological approaches to study
According to this approach, we have the innate capacity for self-actualisation, which is the desire to be the best version of ourselves. This therapy only focuses on human thinking but thinking is just one aspect of the human functions which means that there are broader problems that have to be addressed as well. The concept is strongly tied to animal psychology and behavior; it can also apply to many situations involving human beings. However many people forget that it is inhumane, unethical, and there are countless other ways to test products that are much more reliable and much more humane. The humanistic approach is the basis of counselling psychology which promotes growth and well-being.
Assess Different Psychological approaches to Study Essay Example
This is the reason why field experiments are better favored by an interpritivist as an experimental method. Each perspective begs of certain assumptions on the functioning and behaviour of humans. This therapy is very effective when it comes to treating individuals who have depression and reasonably effective for individuals who have problems with anxiety. The cognitive therapist teaches group members how to identify these distorted and dysfunctional cognitions through a process of evaluation. The cognitive approach can be used to help people who misread situations.
It has also been argued that the behaviourist approach is too deterministic, and that there is not much free will when it comes to the behaviour of an individual. Skinner suggested that punishments decrease the likelihood of the behaviour happening, while reinforcements increase the likelihood of the behaviour occurring again. For example, if one of a pair of monozygotic identical twins has schizophrenia, there is a 48 per cent chance that the other twin will also develop this disorder. The approach is criticised as reductionistic as it ignores free will. Watson and Rayner made sure their study was strictly carried out within a controlled environment and their findings were carefully documented. The approach consists of six major principles: proximity, similarity, figure-ground, continuity, closure, and connection. Compare And Contrast Any Two Psychological Perspec 1952 Words 8 Pages Behaviourists such as Watson believe that people do not have free will and that our environment determines the way in which we behave, either by reinforcement or a stimulus response.
The anatomic, metabolic, and cellular differences between animals and people make animals poor models for human beings. Another strength to this approach to psychology is the fact that it emphasises the importance of nature and nurture, it explains the importance of the childhood experience which relates to the nurture debate, whilst also explaining the importance of the unconscious part of the brain, which relates to the nature debate. Not only is the disciple diverse in the topics of interest, but it is also different in how these concepts are understood. Learning Approaches: Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning is a theory developed by Skinner 1948 , who demonstrated that learning occurs after associating behaviour with a consequence; such a consequence could either be a punishment or a reinforcement. The way they learn can also have an effect on their behaviour and relationships with others. An important concept in these approaches is the idea of varying levels of the human mind. This percentage is known as the concordance rate.