Survival of the sickest chapter 8 summary. Survival of the Sickest by Sharon Moalem Plot Summary 2022-10-06
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In "Survival of the Sickest," chapter 8, author Sharon Moalem explores the concept of autoimmune diseases and how they may have evolved as a means of survival for certain individuals.
An autoimmune disease is a condition in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells, tissues, and organs. Some examples of autoimmune diseases include multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes. These diseases can be debilitating and even life-threatening.
One theory for the evolution of autoimmune diseases is that they may have originally served as a defense mechanism against infections. For example, multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system. It is believed that this disease may have evolved as a way to protect against certain infections that attack the brain and spinal cord. Similarly, type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that attacks the cells that produce insulin in the pancreas. This disease may have evolved as a way to protect against infections that target the pancreas.
Another theory for the evolution of autoimmune diseases is that they may have developed as a way to promote reproductive success. For example, women with rheumatoid arthritis may have a higher fertility rate than those without the disease. This suggests that the autoimmune response may have evolved as a way to protect against harmful infections during pregnancy.
In chapter 8, Moalem also discusses the role of genetics in autoimmune diseases. He explains that certain genetic variations may make individuals more prone to developing autoimmune diseases. However, environmental factors, such as infections and stress, can also play a role in the development of these conditions.
Overall, chapter 8 of "Survival of the Sickest" delves into the complex and often mysterious world of autoimmune diseases. Moalem's discussion of their possible evolutionary origins and the role of genetics and environmental factors provides insight into these conditions and the ways in which they may have developed in humans over time.
Survival of the Sickest Chapter 6: Jump Into the Gene Pool Summary & Analysis
Moalem posits that water births offer additional evidence that water played into our evolution, citing statistics that water births are just as safe as conventional births and are often easier on mothers. The fact that aging may be preprogrammed into all of our genome suggests that every person is subject to the kind of evolutionary tradeoffs that Moalem describes, not simply those with hemochromatosis or diabetes. Even though hemochromatosis is ultimately harmful, being able to survive in the short term is more important because it allows people to reproduce. But though it allows people to create vitamin D, the cholesterol resulting from ApoE4 puts people at greater risk for heart disease and stroke. Jumping genes are very active in the early stages of brain development, and Moalem posits that this may help create the variety and individuality that make every brain unique. Another hypothesis is that death is the elimination of individuals who have likely acquired parasites throughout their lives in order to prevent infecting younger generations.
Survival of the Sickest Chapter 7: Methyl Madness: Road to the Final Phenotype Summary & Analysis
Some posit that Viking men may have offset the negative effects of hemochromatosis because their warrior culture resulted in frequent blood loss, which prevents the buildup of iron in the blood. Diabetes is a condition that has plagued the… Type 2 Diabetes Research Paper According to the new figures in the UK, there are over the 4 million individual living with diabetes. The first drug that tried to deliberately affect methylation patterns was called azacytidine, and it inhibited the methylation patterns of certain genes to try to prevent MDS—a collection of blood disorders. In particular, pathogens use the iron in our macrophages white blood cells responsible for fighting biological invaders. CDC is working on the National Diabetes Prevention Program, as stated in the Affordable Care Act. The Romans and Greeks give it its name, diabetes that means siphon, frequent urination Milchovich, 1990, p.
Survival of the Sickest Chapter 3: The Cholesterol Also Rises Summary & Analysis
Sharon Moalem a neurologist and an evolutionary biologist gives various examples on different traits and illness such as Hemochromatosis and the process of aging as a tool which allowed our ancestors to survive and successful further the generation. These acquired traits are then able to be inherited by offspring. Next, Moalem focuses on organisms like the Guinea worm, bacteria, and other parasites. Moalem explains to the reader that less than 3 percent of DNA contains Premium DNA Evolution Organism Survival of the Sickest Answers Survival of the Sickest Notes Introduction : Hemochromatosis hereditary most common genetic disorder disrupts body metabolizing iron disorder that causes iron to build up in the body. Mary Shelley wrote and conceived of Frankenstein while she and her husband Percy Shelley were visiting Lord Byron in Switzerland in June 1816. What makes people with hemochromatosis unique, is that interestingly, their macrophages have been found to lack the presence of iron, making them ideal for combating illness.
Because our blood and tissue are rich in iron, harmful pathogens use this as a means of invading and growing stronger using our own resources. Aging serves as another example of a condition that is preprogrammed into our genes which offers us a short-term benefit because it serves as a safeguard against cancer, but it becomes more of a liability the older we get. In humans, however, iron is necessary for a functioning metabolism as well as carrying and bonding oxygen to the bloodstream in the form of hemoglobin. It explains how things have evolved and what they have evolved into from way back when and now. The engineer Perreiah came up with solutions that gave the staff more time which was revolutionary in itself but the format worked only under his supervision. Though Moalem again admits the theory is controversial, he posits that when Africans were taken to America against their will by slave traders, they were transported under horrible conditions and were usually not fed or given sufficient amounts of water.
In fact, each chapter in this book focuses on a different aspect of Moalem's overall conclusion that modern diseases were beneficial in the past. Together, these examples show that the more we understand about our own biological adaptations and how even seemingly disadvantageous traits can actually be helpful, the more successful we may be at keeping ourselves and others healthy. Every organism on earth has the same end goals: to survive and reproduce. Essentially, through the understanding of epigenetics, two people with the exact same DNA, such as identical twins, can manifest their genes differently based on differing experiences and environment. Yet by doing this kind of research, we may ultimately be able to identify the substances which help us, allowing us to live healthier and longer lives.
Moalem shows a strong preference for this hypothesis and then proceeds to make a case for water birth over contemporary birthing measures. This first experiment at Duke University provides proof for the theory of epigenetics. Phlebotomy, otherwise known as bloodletting, is an ancient tactic to help cure people of disease. Because of the wide range of other variables for it to manifest, it is considered to have a low penetrance rate. Gawande starts his literature on washing hands. First, Moalem says, this book will examine hereditary disorders and why they persist in the gene pool.
Dawson Following to Massey College at the University of Toronto Author Notes Dr. But according to an Italian study published in 2005, there is no increase in the rate of infection in mothers or newborns. Maternal effect has more recently been linked to the ever increasing rate of childhood obesity. Moalem gives another example, illustrating how little we understand of epigenetics. Moalem gives other examples of culture-specific gene development.
Survival of the Sickest Chapter 1: Ironing It Out Summary & Analysis
In 2015, approximately 41 million children below the age of 5 were affected by overweight or obesity. She suggests that said modern diseases played a necessary part in the survival and selection of those before us in our history. There is a number of the increase rate of obesity in the UK. This goes some way to prevent cancer cells which grow and reproduce uncontrollably from developing, though cancer cells have developed some mechanisms to circumvent this limit. On the other hand, many Jewish people seem to share a distinct genetic heritage despite the fact that they can have very different appearances.
Survival of the Sickest Chapter 8: That’s Life: Why You and Your iPod Must Die Summary & Analysis
As the Vikings colonized and settled on the European coastline, they passed on the condition to their offspring. As the Vikings settled, they populated Europe making the disease quite widespread Dr. Insulin dependent diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world today. However, controversy has sparked over this topic, due to the fact that STEM cells are involved in the killing of embryos. Recently, scientists have discovered how those external factors related to epigenetics can affect fetuses, through experiments where it was supported that pregnant mothers who experienced famine during pregnancy passed on the living memory of it for three generations.