Animal testing research paper. Animal testing research childhealthpolicy.vumc.org 2022-10-08
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Carbohydrate fermentation is a process by which microorganisms, such as bacteria, break down carbohydrates and convert them into various by-products. One particular species of bacteria that is known for its ability to undergo carbohydrate fermentation is Staphylococcus epidermidis.
S. epidermidis is a gram-positive, coagulase-negative bacterium that is commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other animals. It is a part of the normal microbiota of the skin and is generally considered to be a commensal organism, meaning it lives in a symbiotic relationship with its host and does not cause harm. However, S. epidermidis can also cause infections in individuals with compromised immune systems or those with wounds or catheters, where the bacteria can multiply and cause infection.
One of the key characteristics of S. epidermidis is its ability to ferment carbohydrates. It has been shown to be able to ferment a variety of sugars, including glucose, lactose, and maltose, as well as some non-sugar compounds such as arabinose and xylose. During carbohydrate fermentation, S. epidermidis breaks down the sugars into smaller molecules, such as lactic acid and ethanol, which can be used as energy sources for the bacteria.
The ability of S. epidermidis to ferment carbohydrates is important for its survival and proliferation in various environments. For example, in the human body, S. epidermidis can use the sugars found in sweat and sebum as a source of energy, allowing it to thrive on the skin. In industrial settings, S. epidermidis can be used in the production of fermented foods and beverages, such as cheese and beer, where it plays a role in the fermentation process.
In conclusion, carbohydrate fermentation is a key process that allows S. epidermidis to thrive in various environments. It is an important characteristic of this bacterium, which is commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other animals, and can also cause infections in individuals with compromised immune systems. Understanding the role of carbohydrate fermentation in S. epidermidis can help to improve our understanding of this bacterium and how it impacts human health.
Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, is the use of animals in scientific research to study the effects of various substances, interventions, or manipulations on the animals' behavior, physiology, or health. While animal testing has contributed to many scientific and medical advances, it remains a controversial issue, with proponents arguing that it is necessary for the advancement of science and the development of new treatments, and opponents arguing that it is unethical and unnecessary, given the availability of alternative methods.
One of the main arguments in favor of animal testing is that it has led to numerous scientific and medical advances, including the development of vaccines, treatments for diseases such as cancer and diabetes, and the understanding of how the human body functions. Animal testing has also helped to identify and understand the mechanisms behind many human diseases, and has contributed to the development of new drugs and treatments for a wide range of conditions.
However, opponents of animal testing argue that it is unethical to use animals for experimentation, given that they are sentient beings that can experience pain and suffering. They argue that animals should not be subjected to procedures or interventions that may cause them harm or distress, and that other methods, such as in vitro testing or computer modeling, can provide more reliable and relevant results.
There are also concerns about the validity of animal testing, as animals and humans have significant biological differences, and results from animal experiments may not necessarily be applicable to humans. Furthermore, there are concerns about the conditions in which animals used in testing are kept, including issues of overcrowding, inadequate veterinary care, and lack of socialization.
In recent years, there has been a push towards the use of alternative methods in research, such as in vitro testing and computer modeling, which do not involve the use of animals. These methods can provide more accurate and relevant results, and are often more cost-effective and efficient than animal testing.
In conclusion, animal testing is a complex and controversial issue, with both proponents and opponents presenting valid arguments. While animal testing has contributed to many scientific and medical advances, there are concerns about its ethics and validity, and there is a need to continue exploring and developing alternative methods that do not involve the use of animals.
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Millions of animals are killed in United States laboratories every year. More than 100 million animals are poisoned, burned, crippled, and abused in other ways in United States labs each year "Top Five Shocking Animal Experimentation Facts Video ". For this subgroup of animals, it should not be assumed that because their death releases them from suffering, it is therefore not harmful. . The ailments and diseases that were once incurable and thought to be life threatening seem to be nothing to worry about these days. Individual housing might also be overused with other species, such as rodents Carbone 2004. Australian statistics do not include categorizations of animal pain and distress, nor do they include the use of anesthetic, analgesic, or anxiolytic drugs.
Animal death per se outside of any pain or distress caused in killing is not typically conceptualized in regulation as a harm to animals, including in the UK and EU regulations. Most people find themselves in a dilemma when confronted with the subject of animal testing in research. The tests the animals receive are inhumane. There is a continuing debate going on ethical issues of the use of animal in scientific experiments Kolar111-22. Animal testing should be outlawed or modified to where animals do not suffer because experimentation is cruel and unfair and does not have enough beneficial results to deem it necessary.
PETA’s Victories in 2022 for Animals Used in Experiments
But the latter question seems very difficult to answer since it involves questioning the existence of the higher moral status of humans. Millions of animals are used every year for the purpose of animal testing across the world. While they do save countless live animal testing is not proven to always work on humans. Introduction While the use of animals in science has a long history, it expanded greatly in scope over the past century, with at least 100 million animals now used each year globally Taylor et al. Animals will receive these chemicals by force-feeding, inhalation, or injection. Maehle and Trohler said that he would take the young fetuses from the mother and harm them in front of her. Being a mother, she would bark furiously and attend her younglings, ignoring her own sufferings qtd.
Today many beauty and health manufactures validate their product through animal testing. Hastings Center Report Special report: Animal research ethics: Evolving views and practices , S31—S34. Some 4,000 dogs were rescued. The animals that are generally used in research are mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, primates, dogs, cats, cows, fish, and birds Peta. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
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Humans are never going to be put in the same environment as the animals that are tested, and the diseases that are initiated artificially in animals are never going to be completely identical to those that naturally occur in humans. Although toxicity testing has historically been conducted on animals in crude tests developed decades ago, things are changing, thanks in part to the work of PETA scientists. There are flip sides to the argument of animal testing and each side has vociferous and strong supporters. What is the need for animal testing? New York: Oxford University Press. A further experiment done is called repeated dose toxicity, which observes chronic damage when exposed to chemicals daily over a period of time. Scientists are trying to replace research animals with other more ethical alternatives qtd.
The experiments on animals are used to conduct pure studies on developmental biology, genetics, and behavioral studies. Impact of Technology on Animal Testing Issues Introduction The use of animals in drug and medical testing has always been a controversial issue. Experimenters and medical researchers intentionally cause damage to different body parts of animals, in addition to artificially inducing conditions like cancer in their bodies. It is generally conducted on rats and mice. With this, the Animal Welfare Act AWA was created and is one of the only federal laws that provide minimal protection to the animals in the research facilities that are being tested on. First, the critics of the idea of using animals in testing medicines argue that non-human animals are living organisms like human and also they share the same place to live with humanity, so they should be considered as non-human persons and members of the. Experiments are done to test the skin sensitivity and see if an allergic reaction occurs from a product or material.
Animal Testing 1019 Words 5 Pages Have you ever thought about what happens to the animals at a shelter that do not get the chance to be adopted? It is a test created by John Draize, a scientist working for the United States Food and Drug Administration. Historically, moral views about animals have been heavily conditioned by various religious traditions, which in many cases have denied or minimized the moral standing of animals Waldau 2001. Some of the most well-known, and most helpful treatments and medicines have been discovered through animal testing. In 2022 alone, we helped to secure the rescue of more than 4,000 dogs bred for use in experiments and prevented countless other animals from being used in studies we ended! The Importance Of Animal Testing 1456 Words 6 Pages Dogs, a man 's best friend. Others will pose as animal control officers and get their animals that way Peta. For a combination of reasons, in numerous countries, not all animals used in research will be covered by regulations. .
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This inherent value is not respected when animals are reduced to being mere tools in a scientific experiment". We fund and design experiments to show how non-animal tests can replace those done on animals, collaborate with members of Congress to end the use of animals in laboratories, spearhead hard-hitting eyewitness exposés and public campaigns that have been pivotal in shifting public opinion against animal testing, and persuade major corporations, government agencies, and universities around the world to abandon cruel tests in favor of modern, non-animal methods. The first R is replace. We use animals when we are trying to find a new way to help the body look better. Does the Legislation of animal experimentation under modern societies make the issue ethically acceptable? Animal testing is currently a multi- billion dollar industry that encompasses chemical and pharmaceutical industries, government bodies as well as university research centers.
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How Well Do Existing Animal Research Practices Meet Criteria For Moral Justification? Although some people are for animal testing because of human health benefits, others are against it because of the cruel treatment to the animals, however there are many alternatives to using animals such as using computer simulations and 3d models that would have similar results. Testing cosmetics on animals in the United States is very common. Although huge developments have been made with animal testing, about 90% of successful animal testing is not successful when used on humans. Many people believe Animal testing is brutal and is unnecessary myself included , it's abuse towards the animals that do so much for us the animals we love is a horrific thing to think about. Animals should not be experimented on because the testing is somewhat like torture and they are innocent. There are many alternatives to animal testing that still ensure that the product is safe for humans. Seeing what animal testing has done for mankind is a major factor in this paper because it has done wonders for us in the medical field, but the cost has been equal and has hurt many.
The very mention of the topic is capable of generating. It is terrible to imagine that some of these suffering animals were once or could pets, pets that were loved and adored and treated like family. While some people believe animals should not be tested, so to prevent animals from suffering and maltreatment, others advocate the opposite, and support animal research in order to help save both human and animal lives. Instead, the most reliable and inexpensive alternative tests is the need of the hour to monitor effectively the new industrial chemicals and commercial products that endlessly enter the marketplace every year. That innocent puppy will probably be exposed to or force-fed foreign chemicals and later be executed and forgotten.