Channels of technology transfer. 4 Most Important Channels of Technology Transfer in International Technology Environment 2022-10-07
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Technology transfer, also known as knowledge transfer or innovation transfer, refers to the process of transferring knowledge, skills, technologies, methods of manufacturing, samples of manufacturing, and facilities among organizations or countries. The transfer of technology can take place through various channels, which can be categorized into formal and informal channels.
Formal channels of technology transfer include licensing, joint ventures, strategic alliances, and foreign direct investment (FDI). Licensing refers to the process of granting permission to use a patented technology or trademark in exchange for royalties or fees. Joint ventures involve the creation of a new business entity by two or more organizations, which can share resources, expertise, and profits. Strategic alliances refer to the collaboration between organizations for a specific project or a long-term partnership, without the creation of a new business entity. Foreign direct investment (FDI) involves the acquisition of a local company or the establishment of a new business in a foreign country by an organization.
Informal channels of technology transfer include employee mobility, informal networks, and international trade. Employee mobility refers to the movement of employees from one organization to another, leading to the transfer of knowledge and skills. Informal networks refer to the personal relationships and connections that individuals or organizations have with each other, which can facilitate the exchange of ideas and information. International trade refers to the exchange of goods and services between countries, which can also involve the transfer of technology through the export and import of technologically advanced products.
There are several factors that influence the choice of the channel for technology transfer. These include the nature of the technology being transferred, the objectives of the transferring and receiving organizations, and the legal and regulatory framework of the country. For example, licensing may be a suitable option for transferring a patented technology, while joint ventures may be a suitable option for transferring a complex technology that requires significant resources and expertise.
In conclusion, technology transfer plays a crucial role in the development and growth of organizations and countries. The transfer of technology can take place through various channels, including formal channels such as licensing, joint ventures, strategic alliances, and foreign direct investment, as well as informal channels such as employee mobility, informal networks, and international trade. The choice of the channel for technology transfer depends on several factors, including the nature of the technology being transferred, the objectives of the transferring and receiving organizations, and the legal and regulatory framework of the country.
4 Most Important Channels of Technology Transfer in International Technology Environment
One of the most experienced companies with technological alliances is Toshiba a major Japanese electronics company. Technology transfer aims to ensure that scientific and technological developments are accessible to a wider range of users who can then further develop and exploit the technology into new products, processes, applications, materials, or services. Licensing agreements are like a big "cake" with multiple layers that negotiation partners may cut and slice to co-construct a "win-win" solution. How does the transfer of technology generally work? Also read Collaborative research agreements Collaboration agreements or collaborative research agreements are concluded by two or more parties that wish to cooperate to develop and possibly commercialize a new technology. Tech transfer is promoted at conferences organised by groups like the Association of University Technology Managers, so that investors can assess the prospect of commercialisation for a ground breaking new product or service. Abstract The role of knowledge and technology transfer between academia and the industry has received increasing attention in the analysis of innovation.
This can take place through the use of technology acquisitions, technology transfers, or simply the exchange of technology between companies. ADVERTISEMENTS: Alliances need to be formed when one or both the parties have a unique strength. As a result, forty-six publications were included accordingly to our research questions Appendix A. Using tech transfer methods allows SMEs to react to challenges and provide positive contributions to technological advances, economic growth and their own ability to innovate. For example, one party may contribute with technology or know-how and the other party may provide investment. Most, if not all, technological inventions are developed in a university or laboratory. In this way, the transmission of tacit and explicit knowledge can be favoured through the building and maintenance of relationships to achieve strategic goals.
The advantages and disadvantages of technology transfer
Only a limited number of countries have succeeded in maximizing the technology transfer and development impact of industrial parks. International Trade: Import of machinery and equipment and the product may provide an alternative to assimilate the technology. Licensing can be a means for testing and developing a product in a foreign market as a precursor to FDI. What Is Technology Transfer Example? FDI from developing countries could facilitate technology transfer. As the world leading journals in the field, they would be ranked among the highest in terms of impact factor. We have seen these come to fruition with the research advancement of HIV cure, as well as the biggest breakthrough in cardiology since the first hear transplant of a gene that causes early deaths in young athletes.
There are many different channels that can be used for technology transfer. This is the reason why many corporations today establish a dedicated department or office that handles the transfer of technologies and takes care of all legal matters related to it. Based on the findings from other scholars, we have found the centrality of knowledge embedded in individuals, i. . The output may take the form of a contract involving multiple external parties or the constitution of ad hoc structures; with economic aspects, duration, and penalties stated. Secondly, their interrelation should be further investigated and, as suggested by Based on the previous discussion, we conclude by reporting some limitations we encountered in the conduction of our review and selection of the relevant evidences.
Technology licensing only occurs when one of the parties owns valuable intangible assets, known as intellectual property, and because of that ownership has the legal right to prevent the other party from using it. Licensing Technology: The mode of technology transfer through licensing is older than the FDI. Technology transfer licensing agreements Licensing agreements are legally binding contracts where the owner of These terms determine the rights of the licensee: a broad license for any purpose in any territory and field of use, or a narrow license only for distribution or manufacturing in defined territories or technologies, or somewhere in between. An important part of tech transfer is the protection of intellectual property IP associated with innovations developed at research institutions. Technology transfer serves to join research with real world products that can provide benefits for society, solutions to problems and, at the same time, generating profit that can be used to fund further research and development. Digital Distribution: The digital way in which a publisher distribution their content is through the use of digital platforms such as Amazon, Apple, and Google Play.
Channels and processes of knowledge transfer: How does knowledge move between university and industry?
Finally, there are benefits for society as a whole, whether that is saving lives, better health, a cleaner environment, and technical advances to deliver new capabilities, products and services. Technological products, no matter how revolutionary they are, give no real positive yield if they are not yet put in real practice by a party that can truly benefit from them. Joint venture agreements A joint venture is a business entity created by two or more parties pooling their resources with the objective of implementing a common business purpose. This is done by people who are familiar with the product or service and who have an opinion on it. Yet, the variety of frameworks encompassed in our review evidenced the need for a novel approach aimed at highlighting the complementarity and the dynamics between transfer activities. They can be physical, digital, mobile, and social. First, future analyses should be tailored on the revealed multidimensionality of the KT processes.
However, there is a need to take this aspect into account for future research. This analysis confirms that knowledge transfer between university and industry is made of complex patterns of interaction. The STI policy framework. Why does a company need to have a technology transfer department? They can provide guidance on the best ways to transfer technology, and they can be willing to invest in the transfer process. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Section 2 illustrates the methodological approach we adopted to identify and reduce relevant literature.
They have a good understanding of technology and can provide guidance and support for the transfer process. Importers of capital goods are exempted from customs duties and other import taxes. Journal of International Business Studies. Under licensing arrangement a patent holder allows a foreign company to produce the product in return of royalty. Knowledge and technology transfer plays a crucial role in connecting innovation stakeholders and moving inventions from creators to public and private users.
What is Technology Transfer? (Definition and Examples)
Vertical transfer occurs when technologies are moved from applied research centers to research and development departments. Through reverse engineering Japan got the technology and became a techno leader. In the bigger picture, the transfer of technology is beneficial for the technology itself. The parties do not set up a separate legal entity for the project but work together in partnership, sharing the risk and profits of the venture on the terms set out in the contract. Therefore, incentives towards FDI should be designed cautiously and incorporating provisions on the role of FDI in technology transfer and knowledge linkages.