A teratogen is a substance or factor that can cause birth defects in an developing embryo or fetus. These birth defects, known as teratogenic effects, can range from mild to severe and can affect any part of the body. Some examples of teratogens include certain medications, infections, alcohol, illegal drugs, radiation, and certain environmental toxins.
Exposure to teratogens during pregnancy can have serious and lasting effects on the developing fetus. The risk of teratogenic effects depends on the timing of exposure, the dosage and duration of exposure, and the genetic susceptibility of the fetus. Some teratogens can cause birth defects if the mother is exposed to them at any point during pregnancy, while others are more harmful during specific stages of development. For example, exposure to alcohol during the first trimester of pregnancy is more likely to cause birth defects than exposure later in pregnancy.
It is important for women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant to be aware of the potential risks of teratogenic exposure. Some medications and substances, such as alcohol and illegal drugs, should be avoided completely during pregnancy. Women should also be careful about the use of over-the-counter and prescription medications, as some may have teratogenic effects. It is important to discuss any concerns with a healthcare provider before taking any medications during pregnancy.
There are also certain infections that can cause birth defects if a pregnant woman becomes infected. These include infections such as rubella (also known as German measles), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and toxoplasmosis. It is important for pregnant women to take steps to avoid these infections, such as washing their hands frequently, avoiding contact with sick individuals, and avoiding undercooked meats.
In addition to medications and infections, other environmental factors, such as radiation and certain toxins, can also be teratogenic. It is important to be aware of these potential risks and to take steps to minimize exposure. For example, pregnant women should avoid contact with toxic substances, such as lead and certain chemicals, and should limit their exposure to radiation, such as from X-rays and certain types of radiation therapy.
Overall, teratogens are substances or factors that can cause birth defects in a developing fetus. It is important for pregnant women to be aware of the potential risks of teratogenic exposure and to take steps to minimize their risk. This includes avoiding certain medications and substances, taking precautions to prevent infections, and limiting exposure to environmental toxins and radiation. By being aware of these potential risks, women can help to ensure the health and well-being of their developing fetus.
Metabolic conditions are abnormalities in the chemical process of producing energy from food, and thereby affect the development and function of the body. Chemical Teratogens About 2% of all congenital malformations are said to be caused by chemical teratogens. Other examples of teratogens found in the environment and in extraordinary circumstances can include metals, chemicals, radiation, and even heat. Types of Teratogens Teratogens can lurk in your house, garden, medicine cabinet, and even inside your body. What are teratogens in pregnancy? Optiz, and James F. A leave of absence to protect yourself may be warranted. What are examples of teratogens? Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet.
The genetic susceptibility of the fetus to a particular teratogenic agent will also have an effect on the final outcome. During which period of pregnancy do teratogens act in an all or nothing manner? Planning for pregnancy allows you to get chronic medical conditions under control and make lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking. Teratogen Exposure and Effects A teratogen can have a range of adverse effects on a fetus, ranging from minor function defects to major morphological abnormalities and even death. Banned in 1961, thalidomide was one of the first teratogens to be discovered and regulated to protect pregnant people and babies. Detroit: Gale, 2006, 1246—8. What are 5 types of teratogens? Saint-Hillaire studied birth defects in chickens, subjecting eggs to various traumas and environmental conditions i.
A teratogen is any substance or condition that can negatively affect the development of an embryo or fetus inside a pregnant woman. Some examples are Talk to your healthcare provider about any preexisting conditions you have and what medications you take for treatment. New York: Plenum Press, 1977, 47—74. Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling Drugs Final Rule. Teratogens were first defined in 1832 by Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, a French physician. Many viruses can be transmitted to the fetus and cause infection and tissure damage.
The teratogen definition covers a wide range of substances and conditions. . The effects of a teratogenic substance are at their worst during the crucial period, which is the time when an organ system grows at its fastest rate. Barnett, and Marshall J. Teratogen Categories A teratogen is defined based on its ability to affect the development of a fetus rather than its own physical or chemical characteristics. Exposure to teratogens can do the greatest harm to the organ during the critical period.
How to cite Tantibanchachai, Chanapa, "Teratogens". Phenylketonuria, another metabolic condition, leads to high levels of phenylalanine in the mother's bloodstream is associated with low birth weight, heart defects, and mental issues in the baby. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. In 1933, Fred Hale at the Texas Agricultural In the 1960s, thalidomide provided one of the first instances when governments enacted regulations regarding the risk of teratogens to the developing Guidelines for Reproductive Studies for Safety Evaluation of Drugs for Human Use, which created a standard for evaluating teratogenicity and was issued in many countries. In March of Dimes. This is because these crucial developmental periods involve rapid cell division and cell differentiation. Category A drugs have no effect on a pregnancy.
This includes women who are trying to get pregnant and women who are at risk of becoming pregnant because they do not use effective contraception birth control. While certain types of teratogen exposure can result in the termination of pregnancy, others can cause a wide range of congenital malformations. Is a virus a teratogen? In the report on The Financial Impact of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, the SAMHSA FASD Center for Excellence stated that the United States has an annual birth rate of just fewer than 4 million 2 , with 40,000 of those births alcohol affected. Teratogens Teratogens are substances that may produce physical or functional defects in the human embryo or The word teratogen originates from the Greek word for monster, teratos. How are teratogens known? To the fetus, alcohol is a behavioral teratogen. What is a Teratogen? There are also a number of legal prescription drugs that are not safe for pregnant women to use. People had sought explanations for abnormal human and animal development, however, for centuries, and they had developed different theories about the causes for the abnormalities.
When Are Teratogens Most Harmful During Pregnancy?
Maternal Health Problems You can have a physical condition yourself that can hamper fetal development, which is one reason your health should be closely monitored before and during pregnancy. You might be interested: How To Apply For Short-Term Disability In Texas For Pregnancy? Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Fetal alcohol syndrome is a group of abnormalities in babies born to mothers who consume alcohol during pregnancy. Even while the placenta has the ability to prevent teratogens from reaching the fetus, practically all fetuses are nevertheless subjected to various forms of teratogens. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 5 4 , 228-238. NAS can be caused by exposure to many different drugs.
Teratogens: Types, Exposure, Prevalence, and Prevention
They often have emotional problems, can be impulsive, may not be able to sustain relationships, and often cannot anticipate consequences. Hadley, Janet Waterhose, and William S. Healthcare providers weigh the pros and cons of prescription drug use to determine what poses less risk to the pregnancy. These drugs can cause low birth-weight, withdrawal symptoms, birth defects, or learning or behavioral problems. For some children with fetal alcohol syndrome, growth problems resolve themselves early in life. Teratogenic agents include infectious agents rubella, cytomegalovirus, varicella, herpes simplex, toxoplasma, syphilis, etc.