Trans saharan trade network. What is the best definition for trans 2022-10-29
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The trans-Saharan trade network was a complex and extensive network of trade routes that connected the Mediterranean coast of Africa to the western and central regions of the continent. This network played a vital role in the economic and cultural exchange between Africa and the rest of the world for more than a millennium.
The trans-Saharan trade network was established in the eighth century CE and reached its peak of prosperity in the 14th and 15th centuries. It was primarily used for the trade of luxury goods such as gold, salt, and slaves, as well as more practical items such as textiles, metal goods, and agricultural products.
The main route of the trans-Saharan trade network ran from the Mediterranean coast of North Africa, through the Sahara desert, and into the savannahs and forests of West Africa. Along this route, a series of oases and trading centers were established, providing rest and shelter for travelers and a place for merchants to exchange goods.
One of the most important centers of the trans-Saharan trade network was the city of Timbuktu, located in modern-day Mali. Timbuktu was a major hub for the trade of gold, salt, and other goods, and it became a center of learning and scholarship. The city was home to a number of famous universities and libraries, and it attracted scholars and intellectuals from all over the Muslim world.
The trans-Saharan trade network was not only a source of economic exchange, but it also played a significant role in the cultural exchange between Africa and the rest of the world. The network facilitated the spread of Islam throughout West Africa and the exchange of ideas and knowledge between African and European cultures.
The trans-Saharan trade network began to decline in the 16th century, due in part to the rise of the Atlantic slave trade and the increasing competition from European traders. The network was eventually replaced by the Atlantic trade routes, which became the dominant trade route for goods between Africa and the rest of the world.
Despite its decline, the trans-Saharan trade network left a lasting impact on Africa and the rest of the world. It played a crucial role in the economic and cultural development of the continent and helped to establish Africa as a major player in the global economy.
AP World Notes Unit 2: Trans
The presence of water dictated the routes which caravans would take. What was trans Saharan trade? These animals revolutionized trans-Saharan trade networks. The dynasty established firm control over the peasants of Bornu who, once they submitted to Islam, were no longer subjected to raids. When the trade was at its height, between the 7th and 11th centuries, complex systems were devised where word was sent ahead to oases and water was brought to the caravans as they passed so the traders never had to stop moving. Sub-Saharan Africa became the hub for slaves to the Arab world and was sourced through raids and conquest and was exchanged by the local leaders for Mediterranean products such as golds and salt. These traders utilized huge trains of camels which could travel great distances on little water and stocked up on water and food at oases along the way. The longest-lived of all the African kingdoms, Kanem-Bornu depended primarily on trade in the enslaved, whom it acquired by raiding neighboring states.
The interactions through diplomatic relations and the various trade between the Africans and the Europeans opened up the African for the wider world interactions. Mansa Musa indeed gave Mali her glory and Mali also gave Mansa Musa his glory! In Kano, there was the establishment of a new system, the Sarauta system. There has… World History: The Silk Road 1. They appear to have grown from Berber Muslims who migrated north from the Senegal river seeking a purer form of Islam after the middle of the 11 th century. Córdoba had already splintered into many different mini states in southern Spain known as the Taifa states in the 1030s; in the 12 th century these were overtaken by the Almohads, who also came from Morocco, overthrowing the Almoravids in 1147.
As always, technology helped spur this trade networks. Timbuktu is your major trade city to know. The Trans-Saharan Trade During the Middle Ages This lull in trans-Saharan trade was not permanent. Christianity came first to the continent of Africa in the 1st or early 2nd century AD. Ghana owed her progress and prosperity and influence to the strategic role it played in the Trans-Saharan trade. Where the geographical barriers between different climate zones are extensive, the trade networks needed to move goods have to be more complicated.
2.4 TRANS SAHARAN TRADE NETWORKS OF EXCHANGE — Freemanpedia
They were traded in exchange for goods from Europe. With the Portuguese discovery of sea routes to West Africa in the mid 16th century, the overland trans-Saharan trade routes became significantly less important. According to the United Nations, it consists of all African countries and territories that are fully or partially south of the Sahara. As early as the 14 th century Muslim traders were settled in Gao, the principal trade town of Songhay. The Portuguese monarchy also hired explorers such as Alvise Cadamosto, a Venetian slaver sent to scout the region of Senegambia.
While the trade in enslaved people, spices, gold, and salt continued during this period, a new factor in this trans-Saharan exchange arose: the trading of ideas. This is one of the oldest examples of rock art in the Sahara. After the fall of Rome, the seat of power in the western world shifted east, to the Eastern Roman Empire which became the Byzantine Empire. An important feature of this rise of Arabic was the spread of scholars from North Africa in centres of learning such as Kano and Timbuktu. In other words, all across West Africa, from Borno to Fuuta Tooro, political transformations were taking place well before trade with Europe had begun. In the space of a hundred years, Fulani from West Africa had made significant inroads against Bornu, and in 1808, they seized the capital of Ngazargamu. The many manuscripts now housed in the th century.
The Dutch Moment: War, Trade, and Settlement in the Seventeenth-Century Atlantic World. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. Sudan Notes and Records. Before the end of his reign, he established diplomatic relations with the kings of North Africa, especially in Tunis, thus ensuring the safety of caravans journeying to the distant south from the Mediterranean coast. Thus, a vital factor in the emergence of the social fabric of West Africa was the Sahara desert. With us they do no more work than other members of the community, even their master.
The prosperity of Kanem-Bornu was tied to the trans-Saharan trade in enslaved people destined for the markets of North Africa and the Atlantic coast. However, the story reveals just how normal these journeys were, and how often they took place. What is trans-Saharan trade? Around the same time, a fixed capital was established at Njimi, east of Lake Chad. Conclusion It should be noted that the trans-Saharan trade continued to be important into the 19 th and even the 20 th century, as the continuing trade and human traffic shows. Gold's sheen and durability has caused it to have many uses in human history, from decoration to coinage. HOWEVER, you get so much from this trade route.
Who dominated the trans saharan trade route? Explained by FAQ Blog
The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Trans-Saharan trade was when people traveled across the Sahara to reach sub-Saharan Africa from the North African coast, Europe, or the Levant. A few significant effects of the T-S trade route are: the establishment of Timbuktu, the spread of Islam, the spread of written Arabic especially to West Africa , and more. A plural society can be defined as one in which more than one religion is allowed and tolerated where people can mix across ethnic and religious lines, and where the ability to respect more than one faith is an important part of political and social life. North Harrow, Middlesex: Oleander. Separated by a vast and hostile terrain, caravans of camels powered the trade.
In Western areas such as Mauritania, these were known as the zwāya, and in the later 17 th century they would have a major role in the Islamic revival movement which spread in the 18 th century. The slave trade would later come to an end. In Borno, the growth of the gold trade from Bono-Mansu would lead to the movement of the capital away from the old centre of Kanem, further south to Gazargamo Ngazargamu in Borno circa 1470. However, in Mali, the ruler who reached world renown at the time was the Emperor Mansa Musa. By the mid-fifteenth century, the Portuguese had made inroads along the Senegambian coast, raiding Berber settlements on the island of Arguin an extension of the trans-Saharan trade routes , taking captives to be enslaved on Iberian plantations, and exploring along the Senegal and Gambia Rivers in search of sources of gold. But this trade also required a near-constant state of warfare and conflict, which had the effect of destabilizing certain regions, particularly around the Central Sudan. Why is the trans-Saharan trade important? The Trans-Saharan Book Trade: Manuscript Culture, Arabic Literacy and Intellectual History in Muslim Africa.