Antoine henri becquerel contribution. Antoine Henri Becquerel Biography (1852 2022-10-30
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Antoine Henri Becquerel was a French scientist who made significant contributions to the field of physics and the understanding of radioactivity. Born in Paris in 1852, Becquerel was the son of Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel, a renowned physicist and engineer. He followed in his father's footsteps and pursued a career in science, ultimately becoming a professor of physics at the Sorbonne in Paris.
One of Becquerel's most significant contributions was his discovery of radioactivity, which he made in 1896 while studying the properties of phosphorescent materials. He found that certain substances, such as uranium, emitted an unusual form of energy that could pass through solid objects and fog. This energy was later identified as radiation, and Becquerel's discovery marked the beginning of the field of radioactivity.
In addition to his work on radioactivity, Becquerel made important contributions to the understanding of the structure of atoms. He discovered that the energy emitted by radioactive substances came from the transformation of atoms, and he helped to establish the concept of the atomic nucleus. Becquerel also developed the theory of radioactive decay, which explained how atoms of certain elements could spontaneously transform into atoms of different elements.
Becquerel's work on radioactivity and the structure of atoms had a significant impact on the development of modern physics and technology. His discoveries paved the way for the development of nuclear energy and the understanding of the fundamental nature of matter. In 1903, Becquerel was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on radioactivity, along with Marie Curie and Pierre Curie.
In conclusion, Antoine Henri Becquerel made important contributions to the field of physics through his discovery of radioactivity and his work on the structure of atoms. His research laid the foundation for the development of nuclear energy and the understanding of the fundamental nature of matter, and he is remembered as a pioneer in the field of physics.
Henri Becquerel and Marie Curie contribution to radioactivity
Retrieved 6 March 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2018. Of more importance, he had shown that the power of emitting penetrating rays was a particular property of uranium. He tried other luminescent crystals and found that only those containing uranium emitted the penetrating radiation. Here is how I was led to make this observation: among the preceding experiments, some had been prepared on Wednesday the 26th and Thursday the 27th of February, and since the sun was out only intermittently on these days, I kept the apparatuses prepared and returned the cases to the darkness of a bureau drawer, leaving in place the crusts of the uranium salt. His method was borrowed from André Debierne, who had found it effective with actinium. Another discovery was the circumstance that the allegedly active substance in uranium, uranium X, lost its radiating ability in time, while the uranium, though inactive when freshly prepared, eventually regained its lost radioactivity.
Henri Becquerel and the Discovery of Radioactivity
The SI unit for radioactivity called the becquerel or Bq , which measures the amount of ionizing radiation that is released when an atom experiences radioactive decay, is also named after Becquerel. He soon moved from these to J. Asimov's Chronology of Science and Discovery. Soon, Pierre Curie and Marie Curie, colleaguesof Becquerel, found that thorium also emitted Becquerel rays, and they laterdiscovered why: the presence of one of two new radioactive a word coined by Marie Curie elements, polonium and radium. What he had accomplished at the most general level was to establish the occurrence and the properties of that radiation, so that it could be identified unambiguously. With his doctorate achieved, Becquerel became substantially inactive in research. Becquerel's father hadspecialized in the study of fluorescence, and Henri began his own research in this field while attending college.
He tried ingeniously but unsuccessfully to release the energy of uranyl nitrate by warming its crystals in darkness until they dissolved in their own water of crystallization. Developing the photographic plates, Becquerel observed an intensely defined silhouette on the first two plates, and a clear but considerably weaker silhouette on the third. Archived from PDF on 6 April 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018. I hope that the experiments which I am pursuing at the moment will be able to bring some clarification to this new class of phenomena.
Wondering if these "penetrating rays" were related to the luminescence he had studied for years, he experimented with a sample of potassium uranyl sulfate crystal and a photographic plate. Becquerel continued his own research, isolating electrons in radiation in 1900 and noting the first evidence of radioactive transformation in 1902. Nevertheless, Becquerel made three other important contributions to the emerging field of nuclear physics. New York: Ronald Press. He also noticed that freshly prepared uranium apparently lost and then regained its radioactivity.
Comptes Rendus , translated. Because he had double-boxed his plates inside his dark room and had placed the ensembles inside a drawer that he then closed, he was able to conclude that his mysterious rays were not related to phosphorescence and were not induced by sunlight. Thus the beginning of 1896 found Becquerel, at the age of forty-three, established in rank and responsibility, his years of active research behind him and everything for which he is now remembered still undone. Becquerel Comptes Rendus From this simple experiment, Becquerel concluded that the phosphorescent substance had to be emitting a type of ray that was passing through the paper and reducing the silver in the emulsion. He was educated at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, from which he went to the École Polytecdhnique 1872—1874 and then to the École des Ponts et Chaussées 1874—1877 , where he received his engineering training and from which he entered the Administration of Bridges and Highways with the rank of ingénieur. Today, Becquerel is remembered for discovering radioactivity, a process by which an unstable nucleus emits particles. Further researchshowed that only crystals that contained uranium would develop the plate, and that a disk of pure uranium metal produced penetrating rays nearly four times as intense as his original sample.
Becquerel was the third in his family to succeed this position. He had continued his experiments using a double sulfate salt of uranium and potassium French physicist Antoine-Henri Becquerel, co-recipient of the 1903 Nobel Prize in physics, "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity. He carefully wrapped his photographic plates in black paper, coating the paper with a crust of the uranium double salt, and upon exposure to sunlight he once again observed the "signature" of the phosphorescenceinduced rays. During this time, his wife of four years died shortly after bearing him a son, Jean. Though many were to follow him, Henri Becquerel was the first toexperiment with radioactivity. One was to measure, in 1899 and 1900, the deflection of beta particles, which are a constituent of the radiation in both electric and magnetic fields. In the early days of 1896, Becquerel became one of the many scientists fascinated by Wilhelm Röntgen's discovery of x-rays.
He arranged three more experiments, in which photographic plates were kept completely in the dark but put in direct contact with: 1 the salt; 2 a thin sheet of glass; and 3 a thin sheet of aluminum. He had placed the crystals on a photographic plate that had been wrapped in thick black paper so that only radiation that could penetrate through the paper would be visible on the plate. Henri Becquerel was deeply associated with the National Musuem of Natural History when his father was the chair of physics and following his stellar work as a researcher he became the chair of physics at the same institution. Retrieved 13 April 2018. To a solution of uranium chloride, he added barium chloride and precipitated the barium as the sulfate. From the initial experiments came an understanding of the inner workings of the atom and the establishment of a new science, nuclear physics. By accident, he discovered that uranium salts spontaneously emit a penetrating radiation that can be registered on a photographic plate.
He then studied the absorption of light in crystals 1886—1888 , particularly its dependence on the plane of polarization of the incident light and the direction of its propagation through the crystal. On those rare occasions when Becquerel did pursue a hypothesis, this critical power continually corrected his enthusiasms and redirected his line of investigation; so that, for example, while he persistently searched for X rays in phosphorescence, he managed to discover the inherent radioactivity of uranium. Henri Becquerel was engaged in scientific research for the better part of his adult life and during that time he not only came up with a lot of new findings but also held some important positions that led to further great work. This would seem to make sense, as the production of X rays, discovered a few years earlier by Wilhelm Röntgen, is accompanied by a soft glowing spot at the surface of the cathode ray tube. Jai was measuring the radioactivity of different radioactive isotopes.
Still concentrating on optics, Becquerel pursued his doctorate at the Faculty of Sciences of Paris. The only conclusion was that the crystals themselves were emitting radiation. His grandfather had made important contributions in the field of electrochemistry while his father had investigated the phenomena of fluorescence and phosphorescence. Against this, he displayed an admirable versatility in experiment in unfamiliar as well as familiar fields. Becquerel's early work focused on plane-polarized light, the phenomenon of phosphorescence in which certain compounds glow after being exposed to direct light , and the absorption of light by crystals. Later, he directed his research towards discovering new radioactive elements. Retrieved 13 April 2018.