Polio research paper. Free Polio Essays and Papers 2022-10-04
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Polio, also known as poliomyelitis, is a highly infectious disease caused by a virus that can lead to paralysis and death. It is primarily spread through the fecal-oral route, but it can also be transmitted through respiratory droplets. Polio primarily affects children under the age of five, but it can also occur in adults.
The history of polio dates back to ancient civilizations, with evidence of the disease being found in Egyptian mummies and ancient Greek texts. However, it was not until the 20th century that polio became a major public health concern. In the 1940s and 1950s, epidemics of the disease swept through many countries, causing widespread fear and panic.
The development of the polio vaccine was a major milestone in the fight against the disease. In 1952, Dr. Jonas Salk developed the first inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), which was made from killed poliovirus. This vaccine was given through injection and provided immunity to all three types of poliovirus. In the 1960s, Dr. Albert Sabin developed an oral polio vaccine (OPV), which was made from live, attenuated poliovirus. This vaccine was given orally and provided immunity to all three types of poliovirus.
Both the IPV and OPV vaccines have been extremely effective in reducing the incidence of polio worldwide. In the decades following the development of these vaccines, the number of reported cases of polio decreased significantly. In 1988, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, a global effort to eradicate the disease. As a result of this initiative, the number of reported cases of polio has decreased even further, with only a few cases being reported each year.
However, the fight against polio is not over yet. Although the number of cases has decreased significantly, the disease still persists in a few countries, including Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria. The main challenge in eliminating the disease in these countries is access to vaccines, as well as cultural and political barriers.
There have been numerous research studies conducted on polio, including studies on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of the disease. One area of research has focused on the development of more effective and safe vaccines. Another area of research has focused on the potential use of gene therapy to treat individuals who have been paralyzed by the disease.
In conclusion, polio is a serious and potentially deadly disease that has caused widespread fear and panic in the past. However, thanks to the development of effective vaccines and the efforts of the WHO and other organizations, the number of cases has decreased significantly. While the fight against polio is not yet over, the progress made so far gives hope that the disease can be eradicated in the near future.
Polio Vaccine Research Paper
Merrill MK, Dobrikova EY, Gromeier M. Independent review of the trials for the World Health Organization by United States specialist Dorothy Horstmann endorsed their findings — a crucial validation in the time of the Cold War. Throughout history, vaccinations have become better to where they are safer for the human body. She was born in St. Axial T 1-Weighted MRI, Obtained with the Use of Contrast Material, of the Eighth Patient Treated in the Study, at Dose Level 5. The presence of the polio virus had been a growing cause of hysteria throughout the course of history. This decision was made in order to protect potential mechanisms of PVSRIPO immunotherapy Clinical and radiographic responses were observed after the first cycle of chemotherapy administered for tumor progression that occurred after the PVSRIPO infusion Tumor, autopsy, and immune-monitoring specimens were obtained from patients during the study.
To start, there are many issues in todays society that go unnoticed and that we as common people rarely stop to think twice about. He was always as hard worker but after his father died during his second year at Harvard, which only inspired him to work even harder and continue on to a law degree at Columbia University. Brooklyn, New York alone experienced a polio death tally of over 2,000 in 1916. A digital journal for innovative original research and fresh, bold ideas in clinical trial design and clinical decision-making. For patients with neurologic symptoms, glucocorticoids were limited to a maximum of 4 mg of dexamethasone daily, and a short course of bevacizumab, at a dose of 7. National Immunization Days were coordinated in 19 European and Mediterranean countries in 1995, and in 23 African countries in 2004. Although polio has been significantly reduced in numbers, it still continues to exist in Africa and some parts… Lewis Thomas chronicles in The Medusa and the Snail, the necessity for error as a means to better educate and fulfill human potential through the rigors of trail and error.
Gilbert MR, Dignam JJ, Armstrong TS, et al. People that were unfortunate to receive this disease faced hardships including fevers, sore throat and vomiting Allaby. Environmentally, the vaccine saved countless young American lives affected by the disease thus decreasing American mortality rates. Competing interests: The authors have the following interest: this work was supported by Global Good, Bellevue, WA, USA. Imaging techniques and the data obtained are described in the Supplementary Methods Section in the Statistical Analysis In describing the adverse events that occurred in patients who received PVSRIPO, the highest-grade event of each type of event was summarized.
Similarly, the 1997 USDA report, exposes the statistical data supporting the claim that most research 92% was not painful to the animals involved. Infection with Sabin 1, blue; Sabin 2, red; Sabin 3, orange; WPV, black. To estimate bootstrap CIs of parameters that are conditionally dependent on previously estimated parameters, we propagated uncertainty by resampling known parameters from the 95% CIs prior to resampling the data and re-estimating the parameters under investigation. Each study measured the amount of transmission from index persons in different ways. This viral disease is caused by the poliovirus that may come in one of three different forms; all of which are part of the enterovirus genus. Vaccines treat diseases that years ago killed thousands of people in this world. Panel B shows the expansion of tumor 2 months after the PVSRIPO infusion.
Recurrent Glioblastoma Treated with Recombinant Poliovirus
In the dose-expansion phase, 19% of the patients had a PVSRIPO-related adverse event of grade 3 or higher. Single-agent bevacizumab or lomustine versus a combination of bevacizumab plus lomustine in patients with recurrent glioblastoma BELOB trial : a randomised controlled phase 2 trial. In the 1920s, a physiologist named Philip Consumer developed this imaginative method for managing the respiratory issues of polio patients. Patients had to have a Karnofsky performance score of at least 70 on a scale from 0 to 100, with higher numbers indicating better functional status. Citation: Famulare M, Selinger C, McCarthy KA, Eckhoff PA, Chabot-Couture G 2018 Assessing the stability of polio eradication after the withdrawal of oral polio vaccine. Corticosteroid use in patients with glioblastoma at first or second relapse treated with bevacizumab in the BRAIN study.
Vaccines are created through many process. In the absence of immunity, WPV epidemics are possible in all settings where sanitation practices permit the ingestion of roughly one microgram of stool per day or more. The Polio Literature Review words. Mandel JJ, Cachia D, Liu D, et al. This work was supported by Bill and Melinda Gates through Global Good, Bellevue, WA, USA. They each have specific makeups and properties that make them different from one another.
All the patients provided written informed consent. The real name of the polio virus is the Polio Research Paper do not have any polio indicators can still spread the poliovirus. Some diseases that had once injured or even killed thousands of children, have been eliminated completely. Loss of motion generally to the arms and legs happens from sores to the focal sensory system. A noteworthy sickness of polio can be …show more content… For the individuals who gotten the illness before the inoculation programs turned out to be completely viable, there have been reports of a confusion which is alluded to as post-polio disorder. Percentages may not total 100 because of rounding.
This disease caused terror all over the world. Another thing that happened to franklin when he was younger was he collected stamps to pass time while he did exercises. Fundamental to this question is the ability of the Sabin polioviruses to circulate in low immunity populations. Since 2001, less than two thousand instances of polio have been accounted for worldwide every year. The highest number of cases occurred in 1953 with over 50,000 people infected with the virus. Ninety-five percent CIs were estimated by parametric bootstrap with 1,000 replicates.