Three senses of culture Rating:
There are many virtues that are important for a person to cultivate in order to live a fulfilling and meaningful life. Here are five virtues that I believe are particularly significant:
Courage: Courage is the ability to face fear, danger, or adversity with bravery and determination. It is not about being fearless, but rather about being able to confront and overcome challenges, even when we are afraid. Courage is important because it allows us to take risks, pursue our goals, and stand up for what we believe in. Without courage, we may be too afraid to take the necessary steps to achieve our dreams or make a positive difference in the world.
Empathy: Empathy is the ability to understand and share the feelings of others. It is about being able to put ourselves in someone else's shoes and feel their emotions as if they were our own. Empathy is important because it allows us to connect with others on a deeper level, and to understand and respect their perspectives and experiences. Without empathy, we may be unable to form strong and meaningful relationships with others, and may struggle to see things from their point of view.
Honesty: Honesty is the quality of being truthful and sincere. It is about being honest with ourselves and with others, and about being genuine in our words and actions. Honesty is important because it allows us to build trust and respect with others, and to be authentic in our relationships. Without honesty, we may struggle to build strong and lasting relationships, and may lose the trust and respect of those around us.
Responsibility: Responsibility is the willingness to take ownership of our actions and their consequences. It is about being accountable for our choices and being dependable in fulfilling our commitments and obligations. Responsibility is important because it allows us to be reliable and dependable, and to be seen as a trustworthy member of our community. Without responsibility, we may struggle to meet our commitments and may damage our reputation and relationships.
Gratitude: Gratitude is the feeling of appreciation and thankfulness for the good things in our lives. It is about being grateful for what we have, rather than focusing on what we lack. Gratitude is important because it allows us to appreciate the positive aspects of our lives, and to be thankful for the things we have rather than dwelling on what we don't. Without gratitude, we may become caught up in a cycle of negative thinking and may struggle to find joy and contentment in our lives.
In conclusion, cultivating these five virtues - courage, empathy, honesty, responsibility, and gratitude - can help us to live a more fulfilling and meaningful life. They allow us to face challenges with bravery, to connect with others with understanding, to be authentic and dependable, and to find joy and appreciation in our lives.
Social Research Glossary
It is commonly assumed that there is culture, but that it is the property of a small section of society; and from this assumption it is usual to proceed to one of two conclusions: either that culture can only be the concern of a small minority, and that therefore there is no place for it in the society of the future; or that in the society of the future the culture which has been the possession of the few must be put at the disposal of everybody. Culture may even be described simply as that which makes life worth living. Indeed, the one thing that time is ever sure to bring about is the loss: gain or compensation is almost always conceivable but never certain. Tylor, "That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. Eliot Author out of 5 stars 11 ratings. It holds good only in the sense in which people are unconscious of both their culture and their religion.
Religious thought and practice, philosophy and art, all tend to become isolated areas cultivated by groups in no communication with each211 CULTURAL STRATIFICATION other. Williams defines culture as having three levels; 1. If I am not mistaken, some disintegration of the classes in which culture is, or should be, most highly developed, has already taken place in western societyas well as some cultural separation between one level of society and another. NoteThis point is touched upon, though without any discussion of the meaning of 'culture', by E. Aesthetic sensibility must be extended into spiritual perception, and spiritual perception must be extended into aesthetic sensibility and disciplined taste before we are qualified to pass judgment upon decadence or diabolism or nihilism in art.
[Download PDF] The three senses of culture Notes towards the definition of culture by T. S. Eliot Ebook
Tylor in his book, Primitive Culture, published in 1871. To judge a work of art by artistic or by religious standards, to judge a religion by religious or artistic standards should come in the end to the same thing: though it is an end at which no individual can arrive. May 23, 1963 Hearing before the Subcommittee on Indian Affairs of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, Eighty-eighth Congress, first session, on a review of the Indian health program. The Christian Faith also, psychologically consideredas systems of beliefs and attitudes in particular embodied mindswill have a history: though it would be a gross error to suppose that the sense in which it can be spoken of as developing and changing, implies the possibility of greater sanctity or divine illumination becoming available to human beings through collective progress. And just as the functions of individuals become hereditary, and hereditary function hardens into class or caste distinction, and class distinction leads to conflict, so do religion, politics, science and art reach a point at which there is conscious struggle between them for autonomy or dominance.
We do not find, for instance, that an understanding of music or painting figures explicitly in Arnold's description of the cultured man: yet no one will deny that these attainments play a part in culture. Eliot thus refers to self-cultivation, group culture, and societal culture. Eliot concludes with value judgements about 'highest culture' being Western European Christian culture. This is not an invitation to sloppy thinking; it is an invitation to all to philosophize as rational beings. The values, norms and material goods shared by a given group. E48 1948 The Physical Object Pagination 124 p. CultureFurther information: Five wits, Ṣaḍāyatana, Ayatana, and Indriya In the time of William Shakespeare, there were commonly reckoned to be five wits or five senses.
Yet we become more and more aware of the extent to which the baffling problem of 'culture' underlies the problems of the relation of every part of the world to every other. The one more widely held is that culture can be preserved, extended and developed in the absence of religion. The development of culture and the development of religion, in a society212 THE THREE SENSES OF 'CULTURE' uninfluenced from without, cannot be clearly isolated from each other: and it will depend upon the bias of the particular observer, whether a refinement of culture is held to be the cause of progress in religion, or whether a progress in religion is held to be the cause of a refinement of the culture. Thus, culture includes many societal aspects: language, customs, values, norms, mores, rules, tools, technologies, products, organizations, and. The schisms of the sixteenth century, and the subsequent multiplication of sects, can be studied either as the history of division of religious thought, or as a struggle between opposing social groupsas the variation of doctrine, or as the disintegration of European culture. As something to be achieved by deliberate effort, 'culture' is relatively intelligible when we are concerned with the selfcultivation of the individual, whose culture is seen against the background of the culture of the group and of the society.
His description of how to attain this distance constitutes a genuinely new reading of the possibility of a phenomenological ethics, one that involves reassessing what it means to be a self. However, there is more to culture, it is also a way of life, it is, in short, society which for Eliot includes a dose of religion. And I must add that to see the unity of culture and religion in this way neither implies that all the products of art can be accepted uncritically, nor provides a criterion by which everybody can immediately distinguish between them. He discounts class-based 'culture' as a basis for developing social culture. The broken pots and other artifacts of ancient people that they uncover are only material remains that reflect cultural patterns--they are things that were made and used through cultural knowledge and skills. Arguably, cultural practice and cultural production are not simply derivatives of social order, i. We may be thinking of refinement of manners—or urbanity and civility: if so, we shall think first of a social class, and of the superior individual as representa- tive of the best of that class.
Buttressing his position with documented accounts of those who hid Jews during the Holocaust, Mensch shows how the self-separation that occurs in empathy opens the space within which moral judgment can occur and obligation can find its expression. But one of the features of development, whether we are taking the religious or the cultural point of view, is the appearance of scepticismby which, of course, I do not mean infidelity or destructiveness still less the unbelief which is due to mental sloth but the habit of examining evidence and the capacity for delayed decision. We must not think of our culture as completely unifiedmy list above was designed to avoid that suggestion. Some may be found in the accounts given, by various specialists, of the causes of more readily apprehended social ailments for which we must continue to seek specific remedies. The term culture has different associations according to whether we have in mind the development of an individual, of a group or class, or of a whole society. So, while we believe that the same religion may inform a variety of cultures, we may ask whether any culture could come into being, or maintain itself, without a religious basis. Milner, A 1994 Contemporary Cultural Theory: An Introduction.
A good deal of confusion could be avoided, if we refrained from setting before the group, what can be the aim only of the individual; and before society as a whole, what can be the aim only of a group. The traditional five senses are enumerated as the "five material faculties" pañcannaṃ indriyānaṃ avakanti in Buddhist literature. Or we may be thinking of the arts: if so, we mean the artist and the amateur or dilletante. Cultural disintegration is present when two or more strata so separate that these become in effect distinct cultures; and also when culture at the upper group level breaks into fragments each of which represents one cultural activity alone. If we look at the several activities of culture listed in the preceding para- graph, we must conclude that no perfection in any one of them, to the exclusion of the others, can confer culture on anybody. We may go further and ask whether what we call the culture, and what we call the religion, of a people are not different aspects of the same thing: the culture being, essentially, the incarnation so to speak of the religion of a people.
And when we consider the problem of evangelisation, of the development of a Christian society, we have reason to quail. But I should like to suggest first, that it provides us with the means of combating two complementary errors. This evidence throws doubt on the claim that Eliot's work and views of culture are merely elitist, it seems that the poet and his work have more depth than simply a desire for elitism in his poetry. And at the same time we must recognise that when this identification is complete, it means in actual societies both an inferior culture and an inferior religion. We know that good manners, without education, intellect or sensibility to the arts, tends towards mere automatism; that learning without good manners or sensibility is ped- antry; that intellectual ability without the more human attributes is admir- able only in the same way as the brilliance of a child chess prodigy; and that the arts without intellectual context are vanity.