Marxist criticism is a literary criticism that examines texts through the lens of Marxist theory, which looks at the ways in which literature reflects and shapes social and economic structures and inequalities. In applying Marxist criticism to the play Othello, we can examine the ways in which the characters and their relationships are shaped by class, power, and the economic system in which they live.
One way in which Marxist criticism can be applied to Othello is by looking at the character of Iago and his motivations for manipulating and manipulating Othello. Iago is a character who is motivated by his own greed and desire for power. He is jealous of Cassio's promotion to lieutenant and sees an opportunity to advance his own career by bringing down Othello. Iago is also resentful of Othello's marriage to Desdemona, which he sees as a betrayal of his own desires. Iago's actions are driven by his own self-interest and his desire to gain power and status within the military hierarchy.
Another way in which Marxist criticism can be applied to Othello is by examining the relationships between the different characters. Othello and Desdemona represent the ruling class, while Iago and the other characters represent the working class. The relationship between Othello and Desdemona is one of power and control, with Othello being the dominant partner. This dynamic is reflected in the way in which Iago manipulates and controls Othello, using his own position of power to manipulate and deceive him.
Marxist criticism can also be applied to the way in which the play explores themes of race and colonialism. Othello is a black man who has risen to a position of power within the Venetian military, but he is still seen as an outsider and is treated with suspicion and racism by the other characters. The play explores the ways in which race and colonialism intersect with class and power, as Othello's status as a black man and a military outsider is used against him by Iago and the other characters.
In conclusion, Othello can be examined through a Marxist lens to explore themes of class, power, and economic systems. The play's exploration of race and colonialism adds another layer to this analysis, as the characters' relationships and motivations are shaped by their social and economic positions. By applying Marxist criticism to Othello, we can gain a deeper understanding of the ways in which literature reflects and shapes the society in which it was written.
The majority of his work on Shakespeare is included in his unusual study The Lion and the Fox 1927. Each is moved by forces which he does not understand; and it is probably no accident that these two studies of states psychologically so similar were produced at about the same period. Cowhig also examines how several characters in the play, especially lago, are racially prejudiced. The question, then, is: why does he rate Iago's honesty higher than Desdemona's? These motives appear and disappear in the most extraordinary manner. On the other hand his jealousy, unlike theirs, proceeds from a love that has never been requited, and the form of his madness is to persist in hope of an ultimate possession. For Knight, Bradley's Romantic reading of the play as an anatomy of generalized human nature misses the point completely. He has no faith in the masses, seeing only their instability and political immaturity; he is surrounded by a tragic emptiness.
Thus, a bond of unity was formed between the old landowners and the new bourgeoisie, since the former began to apply capitalist methods to agriculture. As for Roderigo, he calls him a snipe, and who can hate a snipe? Our emotions, roused and let grow cold, need quick rousing again. The skill of Iago was extraordinary, but so was his good fortune. One of the primary patterns of imagery is that of animals, and more than half of these images are Iago's. The idea of conflict between thought and action was alien to the artists of the Renaissance, and particularly to Shakespeare, who could not conceive of thought as divorced from action. In fact, I would venture to describe Iago in these soliloquies as a man setting out on a project which strongly attracts his desire, but at the same time conscious of a resistance to the desire, and unconsciously trying to argue the resistance away by assigning reasons for the project. Shortly after the appearance of The Taming of the Shrew, Fletcher wrote The Woman's Prize, or, The Tamer Tamed, a play in which Katharina is avenged.
This, according to Shakespeare's idea, makes him a people's king. Godfrey, Ruth Cowhig, and Wyndham Lewis. Iago's momentary doubt towards the end whether Roderigo and Cassio must be killed has always surprised me. Sir Andrew is despicable; Sir Toby is amusing and almost sympathetic. Thus the racial conflict is immediately superseded by a greater one; the class conflict. As a mere matter of calculation it is perfectly obvious that they must; and I believe his hesitation is not merely intellectual, it is another symptom of the obscure working of conscience or humanity. .
Othello gained ground in the 1960s, the determination persisted to read the play's characters and events as representative of a universal human experience. What is the meaning of all this? Turning Turk 2003 identifies the play as one of a series of early modern dramas about the rise of the Ottoman Empire and the complex commercial, political, and ideological space of the early modern Mediterranean. Hell and night Must bring this monstrous birth to the world's light. It is significant, however, that the term prince or duke, rather than the term King, is applied to them. Henry VII 1485-1509 , aided by an especially created bureaucracy and the notorious Star Chamber, ruled with no regard whatsoever for Parliament. This is the last of the "untamed" Katharina. Let us analyze this group first; it offers rich and varied material for a comprehension of the growth of Shakespeare's world perspective.
Critical interpretations Marxist readings Othello: A Level
The second is the date of publication online or last modification online. Cite this page as follows: "Othello - Overview" Shakespeare for Students Vol. Perhaps in no other scene is the impregnable insanity of Othello so fully evident. It must occur, too, on the open stage. Critics unanimously proclaim it too discursive and unconvincing. Shakespeare not only states his thesis of the causal conditioning of historical events, but demonstrates it through all the means at his command.
He manages to twist Othello's view of his own marriage until it appears to be nothing more than a perversion of nature, and corrupts his image of Desdemona, until she seems to be nothing but a prostitute. Bianca, whose jealousy over Cassio motivates her every word and action, reproaches him on her first appearance with an alleged seven days and nights of neglect: What, keep a week away? Hence, the profound attachment of the bourgeoisie for the monarch, an attachment which continued almost to the end of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. However, he grasped certain basic factors and aspects of social phenomena, harmonizing them with the more specific historical traits derived from other sources, which were meager, confused, and biased. His thwarted sense of superiority wants satisfaction. The comedy also contains a group of characters who present a problem of the utmost social significance, expressed in a more pedestrian form than the love theme. Why is the representation tolerable, and why do we not accuse its author either of untruth or of a desperate pessimism? All this would be sensed in some measure by Shakespeare's audience as indicating the involvement of evil beings, ascendant for the moment, and possessed with a jealous hatred of love and goodness just as their instrument, lago, is himself possessed. Henry IV's son did not need to bow "lower than his proud steed's neck"; he could converse with the people in a friendly and natural fashion without loss of dignity.
Iago's ego, wounded by the denial of promotion, demands satisfaction, and his schemes and manipulations allow him to reestablish his sense of power and dominance over others. All this is far removed from the heroic art of Shakespeare, strong to the point of vulgarity. These products were made by the newly pauperized and dispossessed peasants, who were reduced to the status of wage workers. Observing that black people were typically depicted as stock villains, she suggests that Shakespeare's presentation of the noble, dignified Othello as the hero of a tragedy must have been startling to Elizabethan audiences. Plainly they will not be; and before long Shakespeare has begun to imply that we are weeks or months—or it might be a year or more—away from anything of the sort. From the moment he arrives on the scene of his execution, or when his execution is being prepared, he speaks with an unmatched grandeur and beauty. Cursed be my tribe If I forgive him! And yet Brutus depresses us.
Othello Soliloquy Analysis 979 Words 4 Pages While Iago continues with discussing his thoughts, he brings up many reasons behind why he is planning to get revenge. Ronsald's poem is a graceful, inanimate picture; Shakespeare's, a dynamic, fervent cry of passion and suffering. No new morality had as pet been substituted, and the one being formulated by Shakespeare's class, Puritan morality with all its class limitations, repelled him. They continue to play the hypocrite, concealing their real feelings until Biron unmasks himself and his companions, when, in a magnificent monologue IV, 3 , he disclaims abstract philosophy and glorifies the force of love, the fountain-head of all authentic wisdom. This is also true of the splendid pastorals, Ameto and the Ninfale Fiesolano, so truly revolutionary in content, and Fiammetta, which laid the foundation of the new realistic and psychological novel. The Russian actor, Ostuzhev who set himself to study the character of Othello throughout his career, saw the problem of the final scene as 'acting the part so as to make people love Othello and forget he is a murderer'. The English yeomanry conquered the disintegrating feudal nobility of France.