Flow measurement lab report discussion. CHE241 2022-10-06
Flow measurement lab report discussion
Flow measurement is an important aspect of many different fields, including chemical engineering, environmental science, and industrial processes. In a flow measurement lab, students typically learn how to use various instruments and techniques to measure the flow rate of fluids through pipes, tanks, and other containers. In this essay, we will discuss the importance of flow measurement, the different methods used to measure flow, and how to write a lab report discussing the results of a flow measurement experiment.
The importance of flow measurement lies in its ability to provide critical information about the movement of fluids through various systems. This information can be used to optimize processes, ensure safety, and improve efficiency. For example, in the chemical industry, flow measurement is used to monitor the flow of raw materials, intermediates, and finished products, as well as to control the flow of process fluids such as water, steam, and chemicals. In the environmental field, flow measurement is used to monitor the flow of water in rivers and streams, to assess the impacts of development on water quality and quantity, and to track the movement of pollutants through ecosystems.
There are several different methods used to measure flow, including mechanical, electromagnetic, and ultrasonic techniques. Mechanical methods, such as rotameters and orifice plates, rely on the movement of a physical element to measure flow. Electromagnetic methods, such as Coriolis flow meters, use the principles of electromagnetic fields to measure flow. Ultrasonic methods, such as transit-time and Doppler flow meters, use sound waves to measure flow. Each method has its own advantages and limitations, and the choice of method depends on the specific application and the properties of the fluid being measured.
When writing a lab report discussing the results of a flow measurement experiment, it is important to provide a clear and concise summary of the objective of the experiment, the methods used, and the results obtained. It is also important to include a discussion of the accuracy and precision of the measurements, as well as any sources of error or uncertainty. In addition, it is helpful to include a comparison of the results to theoretical predictions or other published data, and to discuss the implications of the results in the context of the specific application.
In conclusion, flow measurement is an important tool for understanding the movement of fluids through various systems, and is used in a wide range of fields including chemical engineering, environmental science, and industrial processes. There are several different methods used to measure flow, each with its own advantages and limitations. When writing a lab report discussing the results of a flow measurement experiment, it is important to provide a clear summary of the objective, methods, and results, and to discuss the accuracy and precision of the measurements, as well as any sources of error or uncertainty.
Lab Report: Flow Measurement
The likelihood of reading the exact time needed is very small. The points of equilibrium can be noted as a function of flow rate. Mass flow rate ……………………………………………………………………………………………. Overall this laboratory and its results proved successful, with results accurate with an explainable percentage of error and with students having a greater understanding in this area. SOLTEQ® FLOWMETER MEASUREMENT APPARATUS FM101 Page 4 4 THEORY Rotameter The rotameter is a flow meter in which a rotating free float is the indicating element.
Flow rate measurement lab report .docx
You should be clear and concise here and avoid making any assumptions about the data. The experiment used three metering devices, namely the rotameter, the orifice plate meter, and the venturi meter shown in Fig. The centre of the inlet pressure tap is located between one-half and two pipe diameters from the upstream side of the orifice plate, usually a distance of one pipe diameter is employed. In the case that the fluid is being channeled out of a reservoir, then the energy forms will be summed with the expected outcome being that they are equal everywhere University of Hull, 2015. Two factors are used to determine the results of fluid, namely the fluid mass and volumetric flow rate.
How to write a discussion in a lab report + examples
Lab report discussion example 2 Below is an example of a discussion section from a college lab report. The second step in the methodology was focused on the experimental procedure, wherein the researcher had to check on the viability and overarching efficiency of the systems put in place. Generally, flow measurement is conducted either on a volumetric basis or weight basis, depending on the type of the fluid. The manometer readings were then recorded during this period and after that recorded onto the lab book, as shown in Table 1. Accuracy Venturi meter is more accurate compared to orifice meter due to its streamlined shape, which aids in low pressure drop which helps eliminates the boundary-layer separation and thus form drag is assumed negligible. Figure 3 Orifice Meter Pressure connections for attaching separate pressure gauges are made at holes in the pipe walls on both side of the orifice plate.
Flow measurement lab report discussion
Flow measurement can be defined as the quantification of bulk fluid or gas movement Flow measurement, 2019. The human element of error in the timing of the displacement of the weight can be easily corrected by machinery and could prove very effective for applications measuring flow. Any entrapped air in the experimental setup was then dislodged, with the water levels being set at a constant level. The results obtained against rotameter and hydraulic bench was verified for experiment of flow measurement comparison. This could include ideas for future experiments or studies that need to be conducted to clarify the findings of your experiment. A performance index based on Least Average Error LAE is formulated to calculate the index of each weightage set.
Flow Measurement Lab Report
Fluids like oxygen, liquid chlorine are dangerous and may cause explosion with lubricants like oil, grease, wax and materials like steel. A Venturi meter is generally used to measure the rate of flow of liquid through pipes Kumar, n. It is very important for safety and leakage avoidance. You should avoid making excuses or trying to justify a negative result. You should also avoid proposing research that is already being done by someone else. For example, one can lower the diffuser head loss angle of 45 o to 15 o to minimize the head loss. It takes into account the total number of energy losses that come from the length of the pipe and other factors like valves, fittings, and systemic structures University of Hull, 2015.
lab report fluid (flow rate measurement)
The pump is then switched on, and the inlet valve is opened slowly to let the water flow for one minute. Similarly, it is possible to achieve a sustainable bend loss by reducing the right-angled bend to a desirable angle, such that the stream flows or the arc shapes do not result in considerable losses. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that caffeine does not affect heart rate in healthy adults. It is important to be realistic here and to come up with proposals that are achievable within the scope of your research. On the same note, Venturi meter still showed negligible variation due to its vena contracta anticipated assumption. Two-phase flow measurements at a high void fraction by a Venturi meter. In our attempt to eliminate all air bubbles, it appeared as if they were all gone but our visual judgment only goes so far, causing small errors in data collected.
For these reasons, it is always essential to consider the directions of flow changes as well as the cross-sectional areas expansions for both Rotameter and Venturi meter as the most presumably responsive meters as far of the systems as far as their head losses are concerned Monni et al. However, because the orifice plate is less ideal, it causes turbulence in the flow it requires a correction factor known as the coefficient of discharge, K. The figure below shows an example of a venturi meter. Secondly, they suggest that caffeine may not be an effective means of increasing heart rate in healthy adults, which could have implications for its use in sports medicine. Other than that, to determine the total head loss of fluid flow. In order to ensure effective compensation in the system output, the PID controllers for both areas are tuned simultaneously. Lab Report: Flow Measurement The experiment of flow measurement apparatus aimed at demonstrating how to measure the discharge of an incompressible fluid using various methods, namely a Venturi meter, an Orifice plate meter, and Rotameter.
Allow sufficient time for bleeding until all bubbles escape. With the maximum measurable flow rate, retain maximum readings on manometer. Analyzing the data acquired, the values attained for velocity and volumetric flow rate are in correlation with the Venturi meter experiment. Due to the minimal amount of theoretical background, an error in precision is inevitable. Hence, venturi meter cost more than orifice meter. Again, this makes sense because, with more salt in the water, the water molecules are held together more tightly, meaning that it takes more energy to produce steam. In comparison to the sharp-edged orifice of flow nozzle, the Venturi meter shows the most minimal head loss caused by friction and heat.