Introduction of personality. Introduction to Personality 2022-10-31
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Hobhouse liberalism is a political philosophy that originated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, named after the British philosopher and politician Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse. At its core, Hobhouse liberalism advocates for a society in which individuals are free to pursue their own interests and goals, but also recognizes that the state has a role in promoting the common good and protecting the rights and welfare of its citizens.
One of the central ideas of Hobhouse liberalism is the concept of social justice. Hobhouse argued that the state has a responsibility to ensure that all members of society have the opportunity to lead fulfilling and productive lives, regardless of their social or economic status. This includes providing access to education, healthcare, and other essential services, as well as protecting workers' rights and promoting economic equality.
Hobhouse also believed in the importance of individual freedom and autonomy, and argued that the state should not interfere in the personal lives of its citizens unless there is a clear and compelling reason to do so. He argued that the state should protect individual rights and freedoms, such as the right to free speech and freedom of religion, and should not discriminate against certain groups of people based on factors such as race, gender, or sexual orientation.
In addition to social justice and individual freedom, Hobhouse liberalism also emphasizes the importance of democracy and the rule of law. Hobhouse argued that the government should be accountable to the people and should operate transparently and in accordance with the rule of law. He believed that a strong and independent judiciary is essential to upholding the rule of law and protecting the rights and freedoms of citizens.
Overall, Hobhouse liberalism is a political philosophy that seeks to balance the interests of the individual with the needs of society as a whole. It emphasizes the importance of social justice, individual freedom, democracy, and the rule of law, and advocates for a society in which all members have the opportunity to lead fulfilling and productive lives.
Personality traits are enduring characteristics like shyness, submissiveness, laziness, timidity, loyalty, dynamism, aggressiveness, creativity, etc. This trait helps the employee to make efficient decisions and enhance the job behaviour. The early childhood experience of an individual has a major role in determining the attitudes. The individual arrives at an adult psychological stage after passing successively through a series of maturational stages. Although measures such as the Big Five and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI are able to effectively assess personality, they do not say much about where personality comes from.
A theoretical approach to examining and understanding personalities helps explain various theories on personality. People with negative scores tend to be nervous, anxious, depressed and insecure. They are generally considerate, friendly, generous, helpful, and willing to compromise their interests with others. There are four perspectives of personality: psychoanalytic perspective, humanistic perspective, social cognitive perspective and trait perspective. The Ego: Mental images do not satisfy needs.
Interview: This is a popular method of judging the personality. According to Murray, these psychogenic needs function mostly on the unconscious level, but play a major role in our personality. In contrast, a person with less self-esteem may be more content to remain in a lower-level job, be less confident of his ability, and focus more on extrinsic rewards. Experiences relate to the confrontation with that of family members, relatives, and friends and to the social groups, which they belong. Unauthorized Freud: Doubters confront a legend.
And last but not least, the study of the personality development can help to prevent social disorders and conflicts. Entering of a child into social world 4. In this research, people have been made to confront their death by writing about it or otherwise being reminded of it, and effects on their behavior are then observed. Every person is different from every other person in some respects, while being similar to other persons in other respects. This process in personality theory is called the self-concept. Construct validity is the extent to which an instrument measures hypothetical constructs, and there are three important types of construct validity.
These types of individuals tend to seek to gain fulfillment through perseverance and tend to be pragmatic and data driven. The superego strives for perfection, and when we fail to live up to its demands we feel guilty. Suppose a machine is giving troubles, he may perceive that manager is upset because of possible losses. A person creates music or art to sublimate sexual drives. Freud argued that we rarely understand why we do what we do, although we can make up explanations for our behaviors after the fact. Attitudes are not as stable as personality attributes. Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, 10th eth.
Chapter 1: Introduction to Personality Theory & Development
Those high on extroversion are outgoing enthusiastic and energetic. Objective tests are personality tests that require us to answer a set of standard questions, and the psychologist reviews our answers and provides accurate results. Analysis of individual transaction Analysis of games, life script analysis. At the opposite end, due to their reserved and withdrawn nature, introverts tend to excel more in individualized and solo work environments. Their brief description is as follows: a The Id — The id is the source of psychic energy and seeks immediate gratification for biological or instinctual needs. Out of the two, high esteem individual is more satisfied with his job.
Regression Retreating to an earlier, more childlike, and safer stage of development A college student who is worried about an important test begins to suck on his finger. People with high self-efficacy believe that they can perform well on a specific task, but people with low self-efficacy tend to doubt their ability to perform a specific task. The persons who created successful companies Apple Computer, Honda Motors, Microsoft, Sony, Federal Express, etc. The individual will acquire one or the other life position, as follows: i. Understanding the basic structure of an attitude helps us see how attitudes are formed and can be changed.
Similarly, traits like openness and frankness of the managers reduce dysfunctional activities and conflicts and enable the subordinates to concentrate on work related activities and increase productivity. There are 4 perspectives that can be used to describe how a personality is shaped. Self-actualized people are also likely to have peak experiences, or transcendent moments of tranquility accompanied by a strong sense of connection with others. Find Out How UKEssays. Organisational Behavior, Structure, Process. Personality differs in the form of its integration. The mystery of personality: A history of psychodynamic theories.
How do I see myself? The major determinants of personality of an individual are given below: Biological factors Heredity: Heredity refers to those factors that were determined at conception. Kant agreed with Galen that everyone could be sorted into one of the four temperaments and that there was no overlap between the four categories Eysenck, 2009. And yet, although our unconscious motivations influence every aspect of our learning and behavior Freud probably overestimated the extent to which these unconscious motivations are primarily sexual and aggressive. Has no pressing deadlines e. There is a vast and growing body of research evidence surrounding the usefulness of the five-trait theory both in research and practice. Finally, the N stands for neuroticism. Research has proven that people might It's crucial not to get too hung up on your results; humans are capable of change, development and versatility.