Voluntary simplicity, also known as simple living, is a lifestyle choice that involves intentionally simplifying one's life in order to prioritize personal values and reduce the negative impact on the environment. There are many different examples of voluntary simplicity, including minimizing material possessions, living in a smaller home, consuming less energy, and reducing one's environmental footprint.
One example of voluntary simplicity is minimalism, which involves intentionally reducing the number of possessions one owns in order to live a simpler, more organized life. This can involve decluttering and getting rid of unnecessary items, as well as being mindful about what new items are brought into the home. Minimalism can also involve simplifying one's wardrobe, choosing quality over quantity, and only buying items that are truly needed or bring joy.
Another example of voluntary simplicity is living in a smaller home, such as a tiny house or an apartment. This can involve downsizing from a larger, more traditional home in order to reduce the environmental impact of heating, cooling, and maintaining a larger space. It can also involve choosing a home that is closer to work, reducing the need for long commutes and the associated energy use.
Consuming less energy is another way that people can practice voluntary simplicity. This can involve reducing electricity use by turning off lights and appliances when they are not in use, using energy-efficient products, and investing in renewable energy sources. It can also involve reducing the use of fossil fuels by using public transportation, carpooling, or cycling instead of driving a car, or by choosing to walk or use an electric scooter for short trips.
Reducing one's environmental footprint is another aspect of voluntary simplicity. This can involve choosing to live a low-waste lifestyle by reducing the amount of disposable products used, such as single-use plastics, and by composting food waste and other organic materials. It can also involve choosing environmentally-friendly products, such as those made from recycled materials or that are produced using sustainable manufacturing practices.
In conclusion, voluntary simplicity is a lifestyle choice that involves intentionally simplifying one's life in order to prioritize personal values and reduce the negative impact on the environment. There are many different examples of voluntary simplicity, including minimalism, living in a smaller home, consuming less energy, and reducing one's environmental footprint. Adopting a simpler lifestyle can bring a sense of peace and contentment, as well as helping to preserve the planet for future generations.
What was the Fashoda Incident?
The British, meanwhile, were engaged in the Anglo-Egyptian conquest of Sudan, moving upriver from Egypt. In March 1899 the two governments agree that the watershed between the Nile and the Congo shall be the dividing line between their colonies. Discover in a free daily email today's famous history and birthdays Enjoy the Famous Daily Fashoda Incident: 1898 In an attempt to establish a French presence on the Upper Nile, Jean-Baptiste Marchand leads an extraordinary expedition through the 250 miles of high grasses which separate the headwaters of the Congo from those of the Nile. Ever since 1894, when Captain Dreyfus was convicted of treason in a trial which left much to be desired from the point of view of justice, the Dreyfus affair hovered like a bird of ill omen over successive ministries, refusing to be driven away. It was the last crisis between the two that involved a threat of war and opened the way for closer relations in the Entente cordiale of 1904. They hoped to force Britain to leave, and thought that a colonial outpost on the Upper Nile could serve as a base for French gunboats. Delcasse on 28 June 1898, who for seven years was to guide her destinies and finally lead her into a friendly entente with Great Britain, the one power which for centuries had been her open and avowed enemy.
Lord Salisbury refused to send an ultimatum to Paris and the French had become consumed by other concerns, namely the Dreyfus Affair. The British, on the other hand, wanted to link their possessions in Southern Africa South Africa, Bechuanaland and Rhodesia , with their territories in East Africa modern Kenya , and these two areas with the Nile basin. Other colonial problems in Africa were still open. The first Europeans to arrive were Georg Schweinfurth in 1869 and Wilhelm Junker in 1876. They were to be met there by two expeditions coming from the east across Ethiopia, one of which, from Djibouti, was led by Christian de Bonchamps, veteran of the Following a difficult 14-month trek across the heart of Africa, the Marchand Expedition arrived on 10 July 1898, but the de Bonchamps Expedition failed to make it after being ordered by the Ethiopians to halt, and then suffering accidents in the Baro Gorge. In context: what really happened in the Fashoda Incident? The two principal powers involved in this scramble were Britain and France, along with Germany, Belgium, Italy, Portugal, and Spain.
Darrell Bates / FASHODA INCIDENT OF 1898 ENCOUNTER ON THE NILE 1984 East Africa
An international crisis followed when Anglo-Egyptian forces under H. The Fashoda Incident - 1898 With the intention of linking her possessions in east and west Africa across the territory of the Upper Nile, France penetrated to Fashoda, a fortress on the Upper Nile, in 1898, at just the time that Kitchener, after defeating the Dervishes at Omdurman, was proceeding up river to complete the conquest of the Sudan. Several historians have given credit to Marchand for remaining calm. Delcasse, French Minister of Foreign Affairs, said that Major Marchand had been instructed to consider himself "an emissary of civilization" without any authority whatever to decide upon questions of right. The Fashoda incident had, therefore, an entirely different meaning to the one which was generally attributed to it. Kitchener landed at Fashoda wearing an Egyptian Army uniform and insisted in raising the Egyptian flag at some distance from the French flag.
In another interview with Sir Edmund Monson, " M. These in turn were expected to make the British abandon Egypt. This left the French with approximately a tenth of the British force. Eventually France backed down, peacefully ending the crisis by ordering its forces to withdraw from the region in early November. Ultimately, French claims were withdrawn and the area became part of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. They travelled across Sudan to the Nile River.
New York: Alfred A. In truth, neither side wanted that to happen. Bell writes: Between the two governments there was a brief battle of wills, with the British insisting on immediate and unconditional French withdrawal from Fashoda. Her fleet was sufficient to prevent France being eliminated from any settlement of Mediterranean questions. La Belle France: A Short History. The first Europeans to arrive in the region were explorers Georg Schweinfurth in 1869 and Wilhelm Junker in 1876. The two main protagonists are commemorated in the Pont Kitchener-Marchand, a 116-metre 381 ft road bridge over the SaÃ´ne, completed in 1959 in the French city of Lyon.
The French party and a British-Egyptian force outnumbering the French by 10 to 1 met on friendly terms, but back in Europe, it became a war scare. Delcasse laid stress upon there being no Marchand mission at all. It was a diplomatic victory for the British as the French realised that in the long run they needed the friendship of Britain in case of a war between France and Germany. He therefore pressed hard for a peaceful resolution of the crisis although it encouraged a tide of nationalism and anglophobia. The Franco-Russian alliance itself was being undermined, and Russia could rightly question whether France with the Dreyfus incubus attached to its war department was a very valuable partner.
They carried 1,500 British, Egyptian and Sudanese soldiers, led by Sir Herbert Kitchener and including Lieutenant Colonel Horace Smith-Dorrien. He is heavily outnumbered. After the 1885 The French thrust into the African interior was mainly from the continent's Atlantic coast modern-day The British, on the other hand, wanted to link their possessions in If one draws a line from Fashoda had been founded by the Egyptian army in 1855 as base from which to combat the Fashoda was also bound up in the Egyptian Question, a long running dispute between the United Kingdom and France over the parti colonial, had come to regret France's decision not to join with Britain in occupying the country. Stalemate As the commander of the Anglo-Egyptian army that had just defeated the forces of the Mahdi at the Battle of Omdurman, Kitchener was in the process of reconquering the Sudan in the name of the Egyptian Khedive, and after the battle he opened sealed orders to investigate the French expedition. It was a diplomatic victory for the British as the French realised that in the long run they needed the friendship of Britain in case of a war between France and Germany.
Le Petit Journal depicted Britain as the wolf ready to devour the French Red Riding Hood Photo by Getty Whatever the outcome, the greatest result of an armed conflict would have been the loss of the Entente Cordiale in 1904. This period in African history is usually called the Scramble for Africa. The Diplomacy of Imperialism, 1890—1902. A stray bullet, a moment of lapsed leadership, or a piece of miscommunication could have seen the British and French come to blows It could have quickly become a world war if fighting were to consume colonies, which could have benefitted the British as they had a clear advantage at sea thanks to the Royal Navy. Evidently an international incident of extreme gravity was transpiring—an incident which, as shown by the sequel, could not be settled then and there, but was destined to arouse the British nation to its depths.
France and Britain in Africa: imperial rivalry and colonial rule Yale University Press, 1971. Although both commanders behaved with politeness and restraint, the news of this standoff over Fashoda—claimed by Britain as part of the Egyptian Sudan and by France due to both occupation and its 1894 treaty with the Congo Free State—inflamed Anglo-French rivalries and triggered an international crisis. Even in discussions on foreign affairs in the Chamber the "affair" was dragged in. He has with him 150 soldiers all but ten of them Africans and a great many local porters to carry and haul a flotilla of small boats and the separate parts an 80-foot steam launch, the Faidherbe. Between the two governments there was a brief battle of wills, with the British insisting on immediate and unconditional French withdrawal from Fashoda. These ideas were highly impractical, but they succeeded in alarming many British officials. The two commanders behaved with restraint and even a certain humour.