Research on different learning styles. 8 Types of Learning Styles 2022-10-26
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Learning styles refer to the ways in which individuals prefer to learn new information and skills. Research on learning styles suggests that people have different preferences for how they learn, and that understanding and catering to these preferences can enhance learning outcomes.
One of the most well-known models of learning styles is the VARK model, which proposes that there are four main learning styles: visual, auditory, reading/writing, and kinesthetic. The visual learning style involves learning through the use of visual aids, such as charts, diagrams, and pictures. The auditory learning style involves learning through the use of sound, such as lectures and discussions. The reading/writing learning style involves learning through the use of written materials, such as text and notes. Finally, the kinesthetic learning style involves learning through hands-on experiences, such as experiments and simulations.
Research suggests that individuals may have a preference for one or more of these learning styles, and that catering to these preferences can lead to better learning outcomes. For example, a student who has a visual learning style may benefit from the use of visual aids in their lessons, while a student with an auditory learning style may benefit from lectures and discussions.
Another important factor in learning styles is the individual's preferred mode of processing information. Some people prefer to process information through a convergent style, which involves focusing on a single solution to a problem. Others prefer a divergent style, which involves considering multiple solutions to a problem. Research suggests that individuals may have a preference for one of these modes of processing, and that catering to these preferences can enhance learning outcomes.
There are also several other models of learning styles that have been proposed, such as the Kolb learning style model, which suggests that individuals may have a preference for one of four learning styles: concrete experiences, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation. The Gardner multiple intelligences model proposes that individuals may have different strengths in different areas, such as linguistic intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, and spatial intelligence.
Overall, research on learning styles suggests that individuals have different preferences for how they learn, and that understanding and catering to these preferences can enhance learning outcomes. It is important for educators to be aware of the different learning styles and modes of processing that their students may have, and to incorporate a variety of teaching methods and learning materials that cater to these preferences in their classrooms.
Over the last 30 years, psychologists have found that performance on a learning task is a poor predictor of long-term retention. This can be connections with each other students or peer groups, or connections with hobbies, goals, etc. While some students prefer to listen to lectures, others make diagrams or take notes. You can be a visual learner while also preferring to include movement in the process, or kinesthetic learning. Despite knowing their own, self-reported learning preferences, nearly 70% of students failed to employ study techniques that supported those preferences. Perhaps because differentiated instruction is more tailored to individuals than to categories of learning styles, its effects are more measurable in the classroom—particularly for students with disabilities.
Learning Styles: Fact or Fiction? What This Decades
This action helps learners to concentrate. Since there are so many other factors that come into play, like background knowledge and adaptability, it would be hard to pinpoint the cause of the results. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 2009, 9 3 , pp. As of yet, however, no link has been found between a preferred learning style and academic achievement. Presentation of the details to deductive learners at the beginning can confuse the learners Smith, 2006. Learning styles can also be a gateway for teachers to implement personalized learning in class.
And have you read a recent peer-reviewed paper that you would like to write about? Four Other Types of Learning Styles Now that you better understand the main learning styles that have been around for a while, it is time to delve deeper and introduce some of the less-known ones. In other words, visual learners will learn better if they receive instruction that emphasizes visual ways of presenting information, and auditory learners will learn best by listening. The Myth of Learning Styles. The bottom line is we want everyone to achieve the same learning goals. These students like reading aloud to themselves and do well in groups where vocal participation is present. Odds are, every student in your class has a different preferred learning style, which can make it difficult for you to be the most effective teacher. During their time in the classrooms, students are expected to use different teaching methods and are then assessed based on a portfolio of their achievements, which include demonstrating that they had met the needs of all learners.
Educational Leadership, October 1990, 48 2 , pp. Attempted Validation of the Scores of the VARK: Learning Styles Inventory With Multitrait—Multimethod Confirmatory Factor Analysis Models. New York: New York. These are the people who are happy being given spoken instructions over the telephone, and can remember all the words to songs that they hear! Even though it might not always be possible, teachers can support this type of learning in their students by giving them hands-on assignments, holding lessons outside when the weather allows, and utilizing examples from nature to illustrate new concepts. Some students learn best when they interact with others, while some learn best manipulating materials for tactile or hands-on learning.
Differentiated instruction is when educators provide individualized lesson plans, accommodations, or other resources to students based on their needs. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2010, 70 2 , pp. Inductive leaner applies facts and observation to determine a principal Sternberg, 1995. In such experiments, the meshing hypothesis would be supported if the results showed that the learning method that optimizes test performance of one learning-style group is different than the learning method that optimizes the test performance of a second learning-style group. Fleming developed the acronym, VARK, which stands for visual, auditory, reading, and kinesthetic. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 2007, 37 2 , pp. Why Are They So Popular? London, UK: Learning and Skills Development Agency.
Instead of planning activities based on learning styles, teachers may want to opt for a different, but better researched technique: differentiated instruction. Remember in elementary school when teachers would spend hours of time with surveys to help you find your own, personal method of learning? Deductive and inductive learning style Deductive and inductive are classification schemes which divide learners into two categories focusing on how learners prefer to organize the information. Instead of providing the four-pronged cookie-cutter approach that learning styles suggest, teachers focus on individual students and observe what helps them learn. It focuses on the idea that students learn and grow when they form connections that excite them. New York: Kaplan Publishing. A peaceful and calming atmosphere is the best for a nature learner. A Critique of the Research on Learning Styles.
Psychological Science in the Public Interest. In fact, there are several studies that contradict the learning style theory. Understanding Your Learning Style. Learning styles: Concepts and evidence. What about your students? Now, some researchers are questioning the science behind those individual learning styles. Three, instructors tend to present and design training in the same learning style in which they are comfortable learning.
Positive reinforcement is a popular element of this theory. They draw pictures of concepts Nielson, 2010. What do the experts say about learning styles? Knowledge of learning styles assists trainers within the organization to understand how best to present information to learners. College Board Report No. When it comes to home projects, I am a step-by-step kind of girl. However, do not be surprised if you fit in two or more styles since there is always an overlap between them.
Research questions validity of different learning styles
To explore the persistence of the belief in learning styles, CFT Assistant Director Nancy Chick interviewed Dr. Teaching of Psychology, June 2015, 42 3 , pp. An understanding of these learning theories and strategies can help teachers connect to all different kinds of students. Differentiated Instruction for Students With Disabilities: Using DI in the Music Classroom. They enjoy peer participation because it aids them in gaining a deeper understanding of a topic.
Although Fortunately, cognitive science has identified a number of methods to enhance knowledge acquisition, and these techniques have fairly universal benefit. Did that pay off? These learners can be motivated through role-playing, group projects, and student interaction asking questions, sharing stories, etc. The human brain is complex, and neuroscientists still have plenty to discover about what an ideal learning environment looks like. Dylan Wiliam is Emeritus Professor of Educational Assessment at the Institute of Education, University College London. Researchers, however, have sought to measure how effective the theory is and uncovered some positive evidence. However, it could be that the whole idea of learning-styles research is misguided because its basic assumption—that the purpose of instructional design is to make learning easy—may just be incorrect.