Writing numbers in academic papers. Formatting Numbers (Dates & Time) in Academic & Scientific Writing 2022-10-04
Writing numbers in academic papers Rating:
Writing numbers in academic papers can be a bit tricky, as there are different rules for writing numbers in different contexts. In general, it is important to be consistent in how you write numbers throughout your paper, and to follow the guidelines of the style guide you are using (such as APA or MLA).
One general rule to follow when writing numbers in academic papers is to use numerals for numbers that represent a specific quantity or value, such as measurements, dates, and statistics. For example, you would write "The experiment was conducted over a period of 3 days," or "The average temperature was 22.5 degrees Celsius."
On the other hand, you should generally spell out numbers that are written in words, such as those that begin a sentence or are part of a title. For example, you would write "Twenty-five participants were included in the study," or "The Impact of Social Media on Adolescent Mental Health."
There are a few other considerations to keep in mind when writing numbers in academic papers. For example, you should use commas to separate thousands and millions, as in "The population of the city was 1,000,000 people," and you should use a hyphen to connect numbers that are written in words, as in "The study included twenty-five- to thirty-year-olds."
In addition to following these general guidelines, it is important to consult the style guide you are using for more specific rules and examples. By following the guidelines for writing numbers in academic papers, you can ensure that your writing is clear, concise, and easy to understand.
Numbers: Writing Numbers
For example, if your document uses numbers frequently, it is more appropriate for all numbers to remain as numerals to ensure that usage is uniform throughout. When spelled out, they should be hyphenated. She loves the challenge of finding the perfect formulation or wording and derives much satisfaction from helping students take their academic writing up a notch. But the Chicago Manual of Style suggests spelling out all numbers up to one hundred. Sometimes lowercase Roman numerals are used for months in this format, which eliminates the potential confusion e.
When spelling out numerals, hyphenate numbers from twenty-one through ninety-nine when these numbers occur alone or as part of a larger number. If logic calls for a number to begin a sentence, title, or heading, then spell out the number. Correct: There were 12 four-year-old children waiting for the librarian to begin story time. How To Specify Time With "O'clock" The phrase o'clock stands for "of clock," though that exact phrase is not standard English language usage. Correct: The circulation of library materials increased by 4.
Say you're working on a paper evaluating the importance of the local public library in your community. Numbers don't just show up in math assignments — they also appear in everyday writing. We hope that by now you are familiar with number conventions in formal writing. To write numbers properly, you will also need to identify potential differences between major style guides such as To make it easier, let's use an example. Conclusion Your ultimate authority will always be a style guide, but in the absence of one, following the rules outlined above will help you stay consistent in your use of numbers in writing. To Improve the Quality of Papers Effective proofreading is absolutely vital to the production of high-quality scholarly and professional documents.
If a number falls in the range of one to ten and is not a whole number, it should be written as a numeral. The Earth is 4,542,000,000 years old. It can be difficult to know how to write numbers in academic writing e. Writing out large numbers not only wastes space but could also be a major distraction to your readers. Exception 5: Ordinal Numbers In general, spell out single-digit ordinals corresponding to the numbers 1 to 9 , whether adjectives or adverbs. But: Most girls start reading when they are about five years old. No author creates a perfect text without reviewing, reflecting on and revising what he or she has written, and proofreading is an extremely important part of this process.
Numbers expressed as numerals In addition to expressing numbers 10 and above, the following are other instances when you would use numerals rather than words: Numbers mentioned in the abstract, a table, or a figure in the paper this allows for brevity. Written by The Rules for Writing Numbers in English You may have noticed a theme when it comes to the English language: most rules are not standardized. Instead, you could specify "in the morning," "in the evening," or "at night" to clarify the meaning. By the time she was 9 years old, she was taller than half of the boys in her year. In this case, it is best to write one number as a word and the other as a numeral.
Rules for Writing Numbers: Know When To Spell Them Out
Beginning a Sentence with a Number Here is a rule that you can truly rely on: always spell out numbers when they begin a sentence, no matter how large or small they may be. Don't use words for the time when using a. Of course, these rules for using numerals all assume that the number isn't positioned at the very beginning of a sentence or question. Recasting the phrase is generally the better option. Similarly, if a single sentence combines small and large numbers, make sure that all the numbers are either spelled out or written as numerals. Before looking at 1 When the number begins a sentence, you should use words, whatever the size of the number though if possible, rewrite the sentence so the number is not at the beginning.
When to Spell Out Numbers in Writing: Guide and Examples
Certain numbers are spelled out with letters, and others are only written as numerals. Check out these easy and fun exercises from Comment below to let us know how you fared! Revised: There were 15 new fiction novels on display. Rules for Numbers That Are Spelled Out Fractions at the beginning of a sentence must be spelled out. Incorrect: The library was built in the '50s. It is best to avoid beginning a sentence with a decimal, as these types of numbers would be awkward to read if you had to spell them out. Summary: This section discusses numbers, how to write them correctly, and when to use numerical expressions instead. Often, you can reword what you want to say by putting the phrase "A total of" in front of the decimal as a way to keep from starting the sentence with a decimal.
Ordinal numbers are generally only used when the day appears alone e. You should be consistent in how you write numbers; for example, if write a figure like 7bn in one place, do not write a figure like 5 billion in another. They know that no piece of writing is complete without a professional edit, and they love to see a good piece of writing turn into a great one after the editing process. Or, you can opt to spell out the month, with numbers for the day and year. This is true regardless of whether they are included within a table or as part of the actual text. Each type of number may follow a different rule.
Numbers in Writing: Guidelines for Life Sciences and Medicine (Part 3)
APA Style Guidelines for Numbers Words or Numerals? This item scored 5 on a 9-point scale The following are a few other points to remember when using numbers. The document will make use of small numbers, large numbers, decades, and statistics. If the number is large and you want to avoid writing it all out, rearrange the sentence so that the number no longer comes first. As one out of every 11 residents saw at least part of the play, this one event can definitely be considered a success. The biggest question when it comes to numbers in academic writing is whether to use numerals 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. Roman Numerals You may also need to understand Big Numbers Despite the above rule, some bigger numbers are expressed either as words or as a combination of words and figures.
Formatting Numbers (Dates & Time) in Academic & Scientific Writing
Use words if the number can be written using one or two words e. These require numerals unless positioned at the beginning of a sentence. Published on August 7, 2015 by Numbers can be written either as words e. Statistics, mathematical functions, ratios, and percentages are all written using numerals. Fractions can be written either as numerals e. Examples: The region has an average of 43.