Soil conservation programmes in india. Conservation agriculture in India 2022-11-01
Soil conservation programmes in india Rating:
Soil conservation is a critical issue in India, as it is the foundation of the country's agriculture and the source of livelihood for a significant portion of the population. India has a diverse range of soils, ranging from alluvial soils in the Gangetic plains to red and lateritic soils in the central and southern regions. These soils support a wide variety of crops and play a vital role in the country's food security. However, the increasing population, urbanization, and industrialization have led to the degradation of soil through overuse, improper land management practices, and pollution. As a result, there is a need for effective soil conservation programs to protect and preserve this valuable resource.
One such program is the Soil Conservation Act, enacted in 1956, which aims to protect and improve the quality of soil through measures such as afforestation, terracing, and contour ploughing. The Act also provides for the establishment of soil conservation districts, which are responsible for implementing soil conservation measures in their respective areas. The Act has been amended several times since its inception, and the latest amendment, in 2013, has strengthened its provisions and introduced new measures such as the promotion of sustainable agriculture practices and the establishment of a National Land Use Advisory Council.
Another important soil conservation program in India is the Watershed Development Program, launched in the 1980s. The program aims to improve the productivity of arid and semi-arid regions by providing technical and financial assistance for the development of water harvesting structures, soil and water conservation measures, and the promotion of sustainable agriculture practices. The program has been implemented in several states and has had significant success in improving the productivity of these regions.
In addition to these programs, several other initiatives have been undertaken by the government and non-governmental organizations to promote soil conservation in India. These include the promotion of organic farming, the use of cover crops, and the adoption of conservation agriculture practices. These initiatives not only help to protect the soil but also have several other benefits such as improved water retention, increased crop yields, and reduced soil erosion.
In conclusion, soil conservation is a critical issue in India, as it is the foundation of the country's agriculture and the source of livelihood for a significant portion of the population. The government and non-governmental organizations have implemented several programs and initiatives to promote soil conservation in the country. These efforts have helped to protect and improve the quality of soil, which is essential for the long-term sustainability of the country's agriculture and food security.
Soil Conservation Research in India
Eastern red soil region P. Later on April 1, 1974, the Indian Council of Agricultural Research established Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute by restructuring Soil Conservation Research Demonstration and Training Centre, Dehradun and transferred whole technical and administrative responsibility of Soil Conservation Research and Training to it. Trees such as Prosopis juliflora on hump and side slopes , Acacia nilotica on side slopes and Dendrocalamus strictus on beds and grasses such as Dichanthium annulatum have been found useful for ravine control. For fuel wood purposes, the trees at a closer spacing of 4. A forestation programmes may be undertaken at local and community level and also on regional and national level. Another Soil Conservation Centre was established at Hazaribagh to tackle the problems in the catchment of river Damodar DVC.
Soil conservation programme in Kerala (1968 edition)
Similar results were also obtained at Dehradun and Kanpur Table 12. Has been reclaimed with central assistance of Rs. The eight Central Soil and Water Conservation Research Centres are expected to serve the following land resource regions of the country Table 12. It is a 50: 50 funding between the Centre and the concerned states on identified components. The review is not exhaustive as it is beyond the scope of this book.
Integration of Land and Water Schemes to Tackle Land Degradation
As the east and west coasts vary a lot in rainfall, coastal regions have been divided into western coastal region and eastern coastal regions. These projections do not take into account the cost of maintaining or rebuilding the work, the life of which is generally estimated to be 15 years under field conditions. For all treatment combinations the benefit-cost ratio was more than unity. This is a beneficiary oriented programme which aims at rehabilitating Jhumia tribal families with one hectare of terraced agricultural land and one hectare of horticulture and plantation crops. Introduction to Soil Conservation: Soil and water conservation is essential to protect the productive lands of the world. Vegetative covers like Kudzu vine Peuraria hirsuta , Dichanthium annulatum, Chrysopogon fulvus and Eulaliopsis binata provided good protection to soil on 11% slope.
It is an association of conservationists, scientists, academicians, professionals and all those who pledge to work for the wise use of the precious finite and limited soil resources. Three varieties of pine apple namely Queen, Kew and Giant Kew were found successful at Dehradun. The characteristic features of the programmes include : a implementing field measures such as terracing, contour farming, intercropping, etc. The main demand is to reclaim such lands for cultivation purposes. Run of Kutch region L. During Fourth Plan soil conservation programmes were redesigned to be implemented on watershed basis and 21 catchments covering 71 lakh hectares of area were selected. Its research centres were established in Nagaland, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Assam, Sikkim, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Goa and Lakshadweep.
It works for the cause of conservation, development, management and sustainable use of the soil, land, water and associated resources of plants and animals. The side and branch gullies should be plugged. The command area of each of the river valley project has been marked and numbered separately as one area except when it extends to two regions of different soil types. Lower Gangetic alluvial plains region G. The red soil areas of the country have been divided into western red soil region and southern red soil region. Following are some of the schemes worthy of mention here: i Reclamation of Ravines and Badlands- Massive large scale schemes are necessary for soil reclamation in ravines and badlands of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat and Rajasthan. At Ootacamund, the runoff was reduced from 52 to 29 mm and soil loss from 39 to 14.
A number of tree species, such as those given below Table 12. Resistance to forces involved in soil erosion, sedimentation, runoff and water use and management A. North-eastern Himalayas alpine grass and meadow region H. Identification and Description of the Problem 3. A vertical interval of 0. Factors in general include physical, biological and economic interwoven such that any change in one usually effects a change in the other. Sixth Plan aimed at bringing additional 7.
Similarly, studies conducted at Agra Centre indicated that permanent vegetation with Dichanthium annulatum reduced soil loss to 2. The rainfall ones of 0-10,10-40, 40-80, 80-200 and 200-400 cm have been classified as arid, semi-arid, sub-humid, humid and per-humid, respectively. Solar Radiation Affecting: 1 Temperature: a air; b soil; c water; d plant governing evapotranspiration 2 Photosynthesis rate of cover development 3 Permeability: a Surface; b sub-surface 4 Moisture: a form; b content; c tension C. We report how access to productive resources here referred as level of wealth and poverty , such as land and livestock, affects farmers' management decisions and resultant water productivity WP ; and how in mixed crop-livestock systems, WP of crops and livestock complement each other. Besides Soil Conservation training Centre of Hazaribag DVC , eight regional research-cum demonstration centres have been established at Dehradun Himalayan region , Chandigarh Siwalik region , Kota ravines of Rajasthan , Valsad ravines of Gujarat , Agra ravines of Yamuna , Bellary black soil , Ootacamund hilly areas , Chhatra watershed of Losi and Jodhpur desert for the study of problems of soil and water conservation.
To achieve this level of development, it will also be necessary to train sufficient manpower. In clay soil, it is successful even in areas receiving less than 80 cm annual rainfall. Introduction to Soil Conservation 2. There are more payoffs than tradeoffs for adoption of CA but the equilibrium among the two was understood by both adopters and promoters. At the end of the gully, a composite earthen check dam with spillway of brick masonry should be constructed. States have been asked to set up State Land Use Boards for formulating, implementing and co-coordinating soil conservation programmes. It has now been extended to the states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.
In rainfed areas, bench terracing can be practiced on slopes from 6-33% with 60 to 180 cm vertical drop. Precipitation: Form, distribution seasonal, annual, cyclic , intensities, amount, impact characteristics drop size and velocity B. This was necessary to enable transfer of certain type of conservation practices established for a particular location to another location associated with similar situations. Assam valley region J. The rest of the divisions have been made according to soil like black soil region, mixed soil region, coastal soil region, etc. Northern Himalayas alpine grass and meadow region C. The Seventh Plan fixed a total outlay of Rs.