The English language can be divided into three distinct circles: the inner circle, the outer circle, and the expanding circle.
The inner circle refers to English-speaking countries where English is the primary language and is used as the official language of government, education, and media. These countries include the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. In these countries, English is spoken natively by the majority of the population and is used as the dominant language in all aspects of life.
The outer circle refers to countries where English is not the primary language, but it is still used as an official language or as a lingua franca for international communication. These countries include India, Singapore, and many African and Caribbean countries. In these countries, English is spoken by a minority of the population, often as a second language, and it is used primarily for business, education, and official purposes.
The expanding circle refers to countries where English is not an official language, but it is still widely taught and spoken as a second or foreign language. These countries include much of Europe, South America, and Asia. In these countries, English is not used as the dominant language in everyday life, but it is seen as important for education, business, and international communication.
In summary, the three circles of English refer to the different ways in which the English language is used and spoken around the world. The inner circle consists of countries where English is the primary language, the outer circle includes countries where English is an official or important language, and the expanding circle consists of countries where English is widely taught and spoken as a second or foreign language.
Researching of Three Circles of English
To conclude, Kachru Three-Circle model has limitations to reflect the reality of English use. It is the language choice in international organizations, companies as well as academic world Katzner, 2002, p. Graddol 2006 has even argued that knowing English has become a basic skill in the global world. Nunan shares the same feeling with Graddol that knowing English makes more sense than simply "learning English" for EFL or ESL Robertson, 2005. English used in a cultural context that has been studied within these post-colonial countries is taken from a vast body of written work or literature when grouped together and form what is commonly identified as a canon. The varieties of English used here are said to be 'norm providing'.
While its religious legacy was characterised by its various languages this was perceived by the British as a weakness due to the misunderstood complexity of its literary and linguistic diversity. As Burt 2005 comments, the Inner Circle clearly establishes at the top of the hierarchy. The countries involved in the Inner Circle include the USA, the UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The so called "Expanding Circle" of foreign language speakers included more than 750 million EFL speakers in 1997, compared to 375 million first language speakers and 375 million second language speakers. Although Kachru's three-circle of English is still an important initial stepping stone for the division of Englishes, drawbacks and variations have been identified by several authors, including Kachru himself Yoneoka, 2002. The Expanding Circle consists of countries that speak their own native language.
Kachru's 3 Concentric Circles: Models, Circle & Limitations
English literature can also have numerous differences and may use dialects which are now commonly spoken globally. Graddol 2006 has even argued that knowing English has become a basic skill in the global world. The idea that English is someone's second language implies that it is someone else's first language. It gives the impression that English belongs to the native speaker who owns it as his first language. Some special cases like South Africa and Jamaica are difficult to be classified. After reading canonical writers such as Shakespeare, Achebe realised and identified the distortion of African figures within these stories. Therefore, the Three-circle Model should be modified to a more dynamic one to represent the actual use of English.
The outer circle includes countries that used to be under British rule. In these regions, English has historically performed and continues to be the second official language such as India, Singapore, the Philippines, and Tanzania. The limitations of the model will be discussed in the following. The total number of English speakers in the outer circle is estimated to range from 150 million to 300 million. Due to the increasing international communication, the distinction between the Outer Circle and the Expanding Circle becomes fuzzy and cannot account for the growing use of English in today's world. It cannot account for the growing use of English, namely English as a lingua franca between speakers who do not share a first language Mollin, 2006, p. The functions of English are highly restricted in the Expanding Circle which can not reflect the actual use of English.
The English used in the Expanding Circle is regarded as 'norm dependent'. As stated in the report, by Lahiri completely disregarding using English in which to write her novel learning Italian as a beginner it is possible she is unconsciously providing a statement regarding the final collapse of colonialism of any form on a worldwide basis. Cultural advancement by promoting the English language using its literary canon was seen as a passive way of development within its empirical colonies. English is not only learnt but more widely used in different settings. Therefore, Crystal 1997 suggests not defining the boundaries of Kachru's concentric circles in such absolute terms. That means that English language norms are developed in these countries - English is the first language there.
The Three Circles of English: Language Specialists Talk about the English ...
Examples of countries in the outer circle include: China, Brazil, Russia, Japan, and many more. It can be observed that there is a merging of the Outer and Expanding Circles. A whole industry of teaching English has emerged, which is a path to the world of business, science, innovative technologies, and politics. These often have historical colonial relations with the British Empire eg. As a result, learning English can no longer be seen as learning a foreign language in the traditional sense Patil, 2006.
These countries generally do not develop their own forms of English. However, critics have identified several limitations. In so far as national events are decided, the power elite are those who decide them. According to Kachru 1985 , dividing English speakers into Inner, Outer and Expanding circles is preferable to the traditional native, ESL and EFL labels which involve the dichotomy between native and nonnative speakers Rajadurai, 2005. This circle includes India, Nigeria, the Philippines, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Malaysia, Tanzania, Kenya, non-Anglophone South Africa and Canada, etc.
English as a Global Language: What are 'Kachru's Three Circles of English'? Free Essay Example
These circles represent "the type of spread, the patterns of acquisition and the functional domains in which English is used across cultures and languages" Kachru, 1985, p. The classification between the Outer Circle and the Expanding Circle becomes difficult. From some of these changes, other literary canons may also develop as a direct result to challenge cultural viewpoints of what is usually western-led literature. Some researchers suggest that Kachru's Three-circle Model should not base the classification of English speakers on national identity. Norms development is also possible in the Expanding Circle. The classification between the Outer Circle and the Expanding Circle becomes difficult.