Aristotle on political science. Aristotle: Democracy and Political Science 2022-10-13
Aristotle on political science
Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and polymath who lived in the 4th century BCE. He was a student of Plato and a tutor of Alexander the Great, and his works on a wide range of subjects have had a lasting influence on Western thought. Among his many contributions to the fields of philosophy, politics, and science, Aristotle is perhaps most well-known for his ideas on political science, which he explored in depth in his work Politics.
In Politics, Aristotle sets out to define the nature of the good life and the ideal society in which it can be achieved. He begins by positing that man is a political animal, meaning that humans naturally desire to live in a community and participate in the political process. For Aristotle, the ultimate goal of politics is the promotion of the common good, or the welfare of the community as a whole.
Aristotle believed that the best form of government is one that is based on the rule of law and promotes the common good. He argued that the best form of government is a constitutional monarchy, in which a king or queen holds the highest office but is subject to the rule of law and the will of the people. Aristotle also believed that the best form of government is one that is mixed, meaning that it combines elements of both monarchy and democracy.
Aristotle was also a strong believer in the importance of education and the role it plays in shaping the character of citizens and the overall health of a society. He argued that education should be universal and that it should focus on cultivating virtue and wisdom in citizens. He believed that education should be geared towards producing good citizens who are capable of participating in the political process and contributing to the common good.
In addition to his ideas on the ideal form of government and the importance of education, Aristotle also wrote extensively on the concept of justice. He argued that justice is an essential element of any good society and that it should be based on the principle of fairness. He believed that justice requires that individuals be treated equally and that they receive what they are due based on their merit and their contribution to the community.
In conclusion, Aristotle's ideas on political science have had a lasting impact on Western thought and continue to be relevant and influential today. His belief in the importance of the common good, the rule of law, education, and justice as essential elements of a well-functioning society have shaped the way we think about politics and the role it plays in our lives.
Both oligarchy and democracy are in a condition of unstable equilibrium, and as a result each runs the risk of being ruined by being too much itself. The above works are available in an inexpensive edition of the important works edited by Richard McKeon, The Basic Works of Aristotle New York: Random House, 1968. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Learn More Just as the excellence of the sculptor lies in the skill with which she or he applies his art, so the excellence of humans lies in the fulfilment of their function as human beings. Here the citizens are that minority of the resident population who possess full political rights III.
Aristotleâ€™s Political Theory (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
As the science of human action, political science enables man to fulfill this aspiration. Political science students learn to research, communication, and data analysis abilities that can be applied in both the corporate and public sectors. One would expect for him to now turn to the next politeia—either tyranny or the politeia called politeia—but he does not, rather he represented both the account of the variations of democratic politeias and then oligarchic politeias. He had a gift for organizing thought, and the definitions that he proposed and the categories that he established have provided the basis for later thought in many different fields. Often with their approaches to a text one can see only something that is rather tangential to the argument of the text and when emphasize as they do distort the text.
Hobbes and Aristotle on the Foundation of Political Science
But his main interest concentrated on the ideal state. He concludes from this that the city is authoritative over the use and purpose of all of the arts and sciences. Now a close reader of things in her translation would notices what appears to be a mistake as first section 1275a2 but the next section starts 1274b41 which is before where the last section of the text was said to end. A theory of nature such as this-derived from biological as well as social studies-appears to Aristotle to provide a logical foundation for his more broadly conceived science and art of politics. They must be empirical and descriptive, because without the knowledge of the actual he cannot tell what means are at his disposal or how the means will turn out if used. The source is translated by Sir Frederic G.
Aristotle: Father of Political Science
And we might ask, Who knows? When one reads either Derrida or Foucault when they try to interpret specific sections of a text and contrast what Winthrop does here, one finds Winthrop is always on much firmer ground in the Greek text than either of those superstars. Aristotle then traveled to Asia Minor with Xenocrates to the court of his friend Hermias of Atarneus. The affections of the soul are linked with the body such as anger, joy, love and confidence. It is in this more complex form of the politeia that we just mentioned above that Aristotle clearly distinguishes his teaching from that of Plato and Xenophon, as well as Thucydides and Herodotus. Jerusalem: The Magnes Press. Still more important is the discrimination of political structure from the social and economic structure which lies behind it. He has also been the Carlyle Lecturer in the History of Political Thought at the University of Oxford and a Visiting Professorial Fellow at Nuffield College 2017 , a Rockefeller Visiting Faculty Fellow at the Center for Human Values at Princeton University 2011-12 , a member of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton 2004-5 , and an Ahmanson-Getty Fellow at UCLA 2001-2.
Only free adult males with Athenian parents were eligible. It is uncertain whether Politics was translated into Arabic like most of his major works. The answer is clear, as in the universe, so in the soul, God moves everything. This is the province of legislative science, which Aristotle regards as more important than politics as exercised in everyday political activity such as the passing of decrees see EN VI. But we study Aristotle for his ideas on the origin and nature of state, revolution, classification of constitution, comparative politics, polity etc.
Political Science Analysis in Nicomachean Ethics
In fact, their use of this cyclical change from one form of politeia to the next, in a particular path from kingship to aristocracy, to timocracy which for Plato is the rule by the warriors , to oligarchy, to democracy, to tyranny. And because of this most translators and commentators opt to call this particular form of politeia a polity or something like a constitutional rule or a republic but that would be problematic as the Latin for politeia is res publica. Significantly also he refers to his collection of constitutions as a source for studying the causes which preserve or destroy states and which bring good or bad government; it can hardly be doubted that the proposed study is that which ended in the writing of Books IV to VI of the Politics. It might even divorce itself from moral considerations altogether and tell the tyrant how to succeed in tyranny, as Aristotle actually does later. They should live a life that fully actualizes their rational capacities, and by principles that best express what it means to be a human being. Similarly, his suggestions for the constitution of an ideal community are based on an empirical study of actual tragedies.
Aristotle: Aristotle As The Father Of Political Science
The primary intent of political science as a discipline was to bring scientific rigor to the study of politics. Cows, chickens, and human beings have in common certain biological functions which evoke no moral valuation. Political science studies a comparable range of constitutions 1288b21—35 : first, the constitution which is best without qualification, i. Finally, on the strength of this knowledge he should be able to judge what In other words, the complete art of the statesman must take governments as they are and do the best it can with the means it has. The theory that we are being controlled by a higher entity on whatever we do is what most of us believe in.
Aristotle's Definition of Political Science
Studies in Choice and Welfare. As with many other sciences, modern political science has evolved significantly from its early roots in the time of Aristotle and Plato. These topics occupy the remainder of the Politics. Aristotle supported Alexander to conquer the east, and Aristotle himself had an ethnocentric attitude toward Persia. In this particular presentation, Aristotle only does not let two of the six types of politeia present their claim as the other four are allowed to—one is tyranny and the other the politeia called politeia.
Political Science. Aristotle's View on Humans
This is why Winthrop offers us her very literal translation of the Politics III text as an appendix, so the reader can see how she got to where she got in her disclosing of the text. Aristotle classified governments into a monarchy, oligarchy, and democracy. Aristotle observes also that phronesis is the part of the soul that forms opinions,20 and from out of opinions one can refine the truth. Indianapolis: Hackett publishing company, inc. Just as it is natural for an acorn to grow into an oak, so it is natural for human nature to expand its highest powers in the state. Maryland: Rowman and Little field Publishers, Inc.