Yellow fever research paper. Yellow Fever Research Paper 2022-10-22
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Yellow fever is a viral disease that is transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. It is caused by the yellow fever virus, which belongs to the flavivirus family. Yellow fever is found in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America, and it is a significant public health concern in these areas. The disease is characterized by fever, jaundice, and sometimes severe organ damage, leading to death in a significant proportion of cases.
The first recorded outbreak of yellow fever occurred in Yucatan, Mexico in 1648. Since then, the disease has spread to other parts of the world, including the United States. In the 18th and 19th centuries, yellow fever was a major cause of death in cities in the southern United States. Outbreaks of the disease were particularly devastating, as there was no effective treatment or vaccine at the time.
In the 20th century, significant progress was made in the understanding and control of yellow fever. In 1927, a vaccine was developed, which has been instrumental in controlling the disease. The vaccine is still in use today and is considered to be safe and effective.
Despite the availability of a vaccine, yellow fever remains a significant public health concern in many parts of the world. In Africa, yellow fever is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, which is also the vector for dengue fever and Zika virus. In South America, the Haemagogus mosquito is the main vector for yellow fever.
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are around 200,000 cases of yellow fever each year, with 30,000 deaths. The majority of cases occur in Africa, where the disease is often endemic. In recent years, there have been several outbreaks of yellow fever in both Africa and South America, highlighting the need for ongoing prevention and control efforts.
One of the major challenges in controlling yellow fever is the lack of access to the vaccine in many parts of the world. In addition, the distribution of the vaccine can be difficult due to the need for cold chain storage and the limited availability of vaccines.
Research on yellow fever is ongoing, with a focus on improving the effectiveness and accessibility of the vaccine, as well as developing new treatments for the disease. In addition, researchers are working to understand the transmission dynamics of yellow fever and to identify ways to control the vector mosquitoes.
In conclusion, yellow fever is a significant public health concern in many parts of the world, particularly in Africa and South America. While progress has been made in the development of a vaccine and understanding of the disease, there is still much work to be done in the prevention and control of yellow fever. Ongoing research is crucial in the fight against this disease and in the efforts to reduce its impact on global health.
Essay on The Disease Yellow Fever
During 1920—1923, the In 1927, scientists isolated the yellow fever virus in West Africa. However, many of the volunteers died, prompting Gorgas to cancel the experiment. NY: Cambridge University Press. Vaccination has been seen to cause side effects. Then they made you lay in the middle of a room in bed, linen soaked in the warm vinegar. The many symptoms of Yellow Fever may make this viral infection seem frightening even though there is a treatment available, the history is quite unique, but how it is spread may surprise people.
The World Health Organization The Yellow Fever: A Dangerous Virus Essay example The Yellow Fever virus came from Central or East Africa. He is in the third day of contraction. The disease was discovered by Walter Reed and his team of researchers in august of 1900. One one side, volunteers shared space with mosquitos that had fed on yellow fever patients, while a control group stayed on the other side protected from the mosquitos by the screen. Mars had an uncommonly dense atmosphere, but its inhabitants were probably protected from the fever by their newly discovered In 1848, Although Reed has received much of the credit in United States history books for "beating" yellow fever, he had fully credited Finlay with the discovery of the yellow fever vector, and how it might be controlled. If there are medical grounds for not getting vaccinated, this must be certified by the appropriate authorities. In later stages, testing to identify antibodies is needed ELISA and PRNT.
This is partly due to limitations on available insecticides, as well as habitat dislocations caused by climate change. The findings lead Prof. Mosquito Empires: Ecology and war in the greater Caribbean, 1620—1914. Jaundice, fatigue, heart rhythm problems, seizures and internal bleeding may also appear as complications of yellow fever during recovery time. Such as mild headaches, fatigue, and soreness around the injection site.
Lazear, all of whom were contract doctors for the Army. The Philadelphian and French doctors had to come up with a solution, or clarification. Gorgas first enclosed yellow fever patients in screens to prevent mosquitoes from feeding and picking up the virus. Populations at risk Forty-seven countries in Africa 34 and Central and South America 13 are either endemic for, or have regions that are endemic for, yellow fever. Once it gets into the liver, the yellow fever virus damages the liver cells and causes them and immune cells to release large amounts of cytokines into the bloodstream. If you are in a house that does not have good screens then bed nets should be used to keep out mosquitos while you sleep.
Yellow fever research breakthrough could lead to better treatment
The seasoned locals would have acquired immunity to yellow fever, but what about resistance to malaria? Yellow Fever mainly affects the Yellow Fever Vaccination Research Paper infection. Retrieved 22 February 2018. The reason why it is found so often in these …show more content… As the Yellow Fever Disease Yellow fever is a disease caused by a virus transmitted by mosquitoes. Then, to confuse matters, in 1897, Giuseppe Sanarelli, an Italian bacteriologist working in Uruguay, announced, mistakenly, that he had identified the cause of yellow fever, a bacteria he named Bacillus icteroides. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. Yellow fever is an infectious tropical virus disease that can be caught from the bite of an infected mosquito and has symptoms ranging from self-limiting fever to severe liver damage with bleeding.
Over the course of history, the yellow fever virus YFV has decimated populations in various regions all across the globe. Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research. This is the most common type of outbreak in Africa. Retrieved 23 November 2009. There is currently a limited public health arsenal of safe, efficient and cost-effective insecticides that can be used against adult vectors.
Next, the American doctors made you bathe both the feet and hands in vinegar. This disease is called yellow fever. After the war, the disease continued to ravage both Cubans and the American occupation force, prompting, Army Surgeon General George M. He too came down with the disease. Occasionally travellers who visit yellow fever endemic countries may bring the disease to countries free from yellow fever. The deaths prompted the Army's Surgeon General, George Miller Sternberg, to send a special board to investigate.
By the time it ended, 5,000 people were dead. Associated bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics. So the experiment was repeated on a young soldier who had not had a chance to be exposed to yellow fever. It is a disease that is mostly found in tropical areas like South America and Africa Cutter 2016. Foreword by David Heymann 2nded. In a series of experiments, beginning in June 1900, the Reed Commission eventually proved that yellow fever was spread not by poor sanitation, but by female Aedes Aegypti mosquitoes, which carried the virus from person to person with their bites. Between 1668 and 1893, there were more than 135 epidemics in the USA, said Robert Joy, emeritus professor of history at the Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences Bethesda, MD, USA and former director of the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research.
Major Walter Reed and the Eradication of Yellow Fever
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We were established in 1983 as a member-based, charitable 501 c 3 nonprofit organization. Such diseases consist of measles, mumps, malaria, typhus and yellow fever. Retrieved 30 September 2019. He then ordered his team to fumigate every building in Havana and identified collections of water where mosquitoes might breed; he had those sources screened or drained, and even spread oil on the surface. Journal of Medical Virology. Many of these diseases are caused by different things and originated in different countries.