12 Angry Men is a classic film that explores the dynamics of a jury as they deliberate a verdict in a murder case. Throughout the film, various fallacies are committed by the jurors as they try to come to a decision. Fallacies are errors in reasoning that can undermine the validity of an argument. Here are some examples of fallacies that are committed in 12 Angry Men:
Ad Hominem Fallacy: This fallacy involves attacking the person making the argument, rather than the argument itself. In the film, Juror 8 (played by Henry Fonda) is subjected to ad hominem attacks by several of the other jurors. For example, Juror 3 (played by Lee J. Cobb) accuses Juror 8 of being a "dreamer" and not being practical. This is an attempt to discredit Juror 8's arguments, rather than engaging with them on their merits.
Appeal to Authority Fallacy: This fallacy involves relying on the opinion of an authority figure as proof of an argument, without sufficient evidence. In the film, Juror 9 (played by Joseph Sweeney) cites the testimony of a medical expert as proof that the defendant could not have committed the crime. However, Juror 8 points out that the medical expert's testimony was based on assumptions, rather than solid evidence.
Appeal to Emotion Fallacy: This fallacy involves attempting to manipulate the emotions of the listener in order to win an argument. In the film, Juror 7 (played by Jack Warden) tries to appeal to the emotions of the other jurors by suggesting that they should hurry up and reach a verdict so they can go home and watch a baseball game. This is an attempt to sway the jurors' decision-making by playing on their desire to be somewhere else.
False Dilemma Fallacy: This fallacy involves presenting only two options as if they are the only possibilities, when in fact there may be other options. In the film, Juror 8 is faced with a false dilemma when the other jurors try to pressure him into voting guilty. They argue that there are only two options: either the defendant is guilty or he is not. However, Juror 8 points out that there is a third possibility: reasonable doubt.
In conclusion, 12 Angry Men is a powerful illustration of the ways in which fallacies can be used to manipulate and deceive. It reminds us to be critical thinkers and to carefully evaluate the arguments and evidence presented to us, rather than blindly accepting what we are told.
Harley-Davidson is a household name and an iconic American brand that has been synonymous with motorcycles for over a century. Founded in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1903 by William S. Harley, Arthur Davidson, Walter Davidson, and William A. Davidson, Harley-Davidson has a rich history that has seen it through numerous challenges and changes.
The company was founded with the goal of producing small, reliable motorcycles that could be used for transportation and leisure. In the early years, Harley-Davidson struggled to compete with larger, more established motorcycle manufacturers. However, the company's perseverance and dedication to quality paid off, and by the 1920s, Harley-Davidson had become one of the most respected and successful motorcycle manufacturers in the world.
Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, Harley-Davidson continued to innovate and expand, introducing new models and technologies that helped to solidify its position as a leader in the motorcycle industry. In the post-World War II era, Harley-Davidson faced intense competition from foreign manufacturers, but the company was able to remain competitive by continuing to innovate and evolve.
In the 1980s and 1990s, Harley-Davidson underwent significant changes as it struggled to adapt to changing market conditions. The company faced financial challenges and underwent several restructuring efforts, including the sale of its non-motorcycle businesses. Despite these challenges, Harley-Davidson remained committed to its core values of quality and craftsmanship, and continued to produce high-quality motorcycles that were beloved by enthusiasts around the world.
Today, Harley-Davidson is a global brand with a strong presence in over 100 countries. The company continues to produce a wide range of motorcycles, including touring bikes, cruiser bikes, and sport bikes, and it has a loyal following of passionate riders. Despite facing numerous challenges over the years, Harley-Davidson has remained true to its roots and continues to be a leader in the motorcycle industry.
12 Angry Men is a classic film that depicts the deliberation process of a jury as they decide the fate of a young man accused of murder. Throughout the film, several fallacies are committed by the characters, which can cloud their judgment and lead to flawed decision-making.
One fallacy that is frequently demonstrated in the film is the ad hominem fallacy. This occurs when an argument is dismissed or attacked based on the person making the argument, rather than the argument itself. For example, Juror 8 (played by Henry Fonda) is frequently attacked by the other jurors for being a "smart aleck" or "know-it-all," rather than addressing the substance of his arguments. This type of fallacy can be damaging to the deliberation process because it distracts from the relevant issues and can create a biased or hostile environment.
Another fallacy that appears in the film is the appeal to authority. This occurs when an argument is accepted as true simply because it is made by someone in a position of authority, without any independent evidence or reasoning. For example, Juror 10 (played by Joseph Sweeney) repeatedly asserts that the defendant is guilty because "those people" (referring to the slum in which the defendant lives) are "all alike" and are prone to violence. This fallacy is problematic because it relies on stereotypes and prejudices rather than factual evidence.
A third fallacy that is evident in the film is the appeal to emotion. This occurs when an argument is made based on emotional appeals, rather than logical reasoning. For example, Juror 3 (played by Lee J. Cobb) becomes extremely emotional and angry when discussing the case, and at one point even shouts "I'll kill him!" This type of fallacy can be harmful because it can cloud judgment and prevent a fair and objective consideration of the evidence.
In conclusion, 12 Angry Men is a thought-provoking film that highlights the importance of avoiding fallacious reasoning in the decision-making process. By recognizing and avoiding these types of fallacies, we can better ensure that our decisions are based on sound reasoning and evidence, rather than emotion or biases.