"Echo" is a poem written by Christina Rossetti, a Victorian poet known for her religious and devotional works. The poem explores the theme of loss and the enduring power of memory through the metaphor of an echo.
In the opening lines of the poem, Rossetti introduces the idea of an echo as a voice that repeats the words of others, but "dies away" when the sound that caused it has ceased. This serves as a metaphor for the way that memories and emotions can linger long after the events or people that sparked them are gone.
The speaker of the poem laments the loss of a loved one, saying that their absence feels like a "silent desert" and a "vacant nest." They wonder if their loved one can still hear them, even though they are no longer physically present. This longing for connection and the fear of being forgotten is a common theme in Rossetti's poetry, and it is evident in the speaker's words.
As the poem progresses, the speaker reflects on the way that echoes can be both comforting and unsettling. On the one hand, hearing an echo can feel like a reassuring presence, a reminder that someone or something has been there before. On the other hand, an echo can also be a source of loneliness and longing, as it is a reminder of what is no longer present.
In the final stanza, the speaker speaks directly to the echo, asking it to "whisper low" the words of their loved one, as if they were still there. This serves as a poignant reminder of the enduring power of memory and the ways in which it can continue to shape our thoughts and feelings long after the people and events that inspired them are gone.
Overall, "Echo" is a beautifully crafted poem that explores the theme of loss and the enduring power of memory through the metaphor of an echo. Rossetti's use of language and imagery is evocative and moving, and the poem speaks to the universal human experience of loss and the desire to hold onto the people and memories that we hold dear.
THE FOREST CONSERVATION ACT, 1980
Constitutional Mandate and Forest Conservation: The Legislative Action: The first statute on the subject was the Indian Forest Act, 1865. It was implemented on 25 th Oct. But in view of the inherent illegality attaching to them, there was no option but to close them. It was repealed and replaced by Objects and Reasons of the Forest Conservation Act: Deforestation causes ecological imbalance and leads to environmental deterioration. Of course, certain guidelines will be laid down by the Central government, which will include planting trees to compensate for the loss of forest lands.
This law came into force on October 25, 1980. An Advisory Committee constituted under the Act advises the Centre on these approvals. The Act deals with the four categories of forests, namely reserved forests, village forests, protected forests, and private forests. In this article, You will read Forest Conservation Act 1980 for UPSC IAS Exam. Section 3A deals with Penalty for contravention of the provisions of the Act. High Court in Kinkri Devi v.
All you need to know about the Forest Conservation Act, 1980
Aspirants can find complete information about upcoming Related Links. It aimed to regulate the forest produce and to levy taxes on timber and other forest produce, which later became the source of revenue for the government. Whenever any law gets passed, it carries the hope that it will address the social issue for which it was passed. Bombay Environmental Action 2011 In this case , an application was filed by the District collector to initiate the contempt proceedings against the appellants for violating the orders to the court. Thus, due to this shift, the Central Government was empowered to directly act in order to conserve forests. However, only exceptional public initiatives will be permitted to flourish in forest areas. Wind energy If a proposal is made for the establishment of wind energy farms or windmills which require forest area clearance and includes the facilitation of transmission lines, corridors between successive windmills, earthing pits and roads including provision for repose, breast walls etc.
It never aimed to protect the forests of the country and just wanted to regulate the cutting of timber and other raw materials used in the industries. The developers seeking approval and state authorities do not seemingly have any as such responsibility to protect forests. Krishandas Tikaram, 1995 Supp. Section 2 of the act is about the restriction on the State Government for dereservation of forests or use of forest land for non-forest purpose. Under this Act, the government was also empowered to create reserved forests.
Eventually, the amended Act will lead to deforestation. Violation or lack of permit was treated as a criminal offense. Forest Conservation Act 1980 Why in news? These lands were acquired to construction or expansion purposes, will no longer need clearance for their projects. This was realised later as the Constitution Forty-Second Amendment Act, 1976 was made and Article 48A was added to the part of Directive Principles of State Policy and Article 51A as a fundamental duty of every citizen of India. This Act also aims to regenerate the forests by planting trees and increase forest growth in our country. Â Conclusion The FCA, 1980 is short and put together. Rulemaking Power: Power to make rules for carrying out the provisions of this act is vested with the central government.
Â The main issue raised was whether such a construction was in accordance with the provisions of the FCA, 1980 or not. But due to rapid deforestation, the cycle of nature is itself being disrupted. In 1986, after its expiry, the respondents approached the State government for its renewal. Appeals: The appeal from the decision of any authority under this Act shall lie to the National Green Tribunal. Â The main problem arising is the allocation of fixed costs. So to regulate such inhuman activities towards the forests the Government of Indian enacted the Forest Conservation Act, 1980.
Transfer of Zudpi lands When Zudpi Jungle lands are diverted to be used for Public purposes prior to 12 December 1996, no transfer of forest land must take place under any circumstances without prior approval of the State government. It provides that anything contained in any other law for the time being in force in a state, no state government or any other authority shall make, except with prior approval of the central government, any order directing- a That any reserved forest declared under any law for the time being in force in that state or any portion, shall cease to be reserved. It decided that category C quarries should not be allowed to be operated and a number of the quarries listed in category B should not be operated as well. NPV is an ecological cost of forests. However, when it comes to the valuation of intangible outputs such as environmental cost-benefit there is no known market for the same. Thus, for the sake of retention of the environment and maintenance of ecological balance.
Later, it was replaced by the Indian Forest Act, 1927 during the colonial period. Fixed cost is important for valuation as it contributes to total revenue. Section 3 confers upon Central government the power to constitute an advisory committee that will advise and assist the government regarding the grant of approval under section 2 as well as other forest-related matters. It emphasized though that afforestation and soil conservation programmes would have to be taken up in the closed quarries and ordered that the Government of India should, as far as practicable, provide employment to these workmen in the afforestation and soil conservation programmes. They also provide us with some useful products like wood and food. According to the 1868 legislation the Colonial government was empowered to replace valuable tracts of forests in order to build the Indian railways. Â Â Most importantly, the scheme for compensatory afforestation has to be submitted along with the proposal of the project plan.
The appellants have the licence to manufacture salt at the place. The Court called for the comprehensive statement of all the States about their past activity and their future programme to tackle the problem of degradation and degeneration of forests. It does not include any work relating to conservation, development and management of forests and wildlife, namely, the establishment of check-posts, fire lines, wireless communications and construction of fencing, bridges and culverts, dams, waterholes, trench marks, boundary marks, pipelines or other like purposes. Therefore, to stop this rapid deforestation the Central government enacted the Forest Conservation Act, 1980. Krishnadas Tikaram 1994 In this case , the respondents were granted the mining lease of limestone in the forest area in the year of 1966 for a period of 20 years. Such activity is site-specific and is regulated under various Statutes such as Mines and Mineral Development and Regulation Act, 1957.