Short note on soil erosion. What is Soil Erosion? Causes, Effects of Soil Erosion, Soil Conservation 2022-10-19
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Soil erosion is the wearing away of topsoil, the uppermost layer of soil that contains vital nutrients and is essential for plant growth. It is a natural process that occurs over time, but human activities such as agriculture, urbanization, and deforestation can accelerate the rate of erosion, leading to significant environmental and economic consequences.
There are several types of soil erosion, including water erosion, wind erosion, and tillage erosion. Water erosion is caused by the flow of water over the surface of the soil, either through rain or irrigation. It can occur on flat or sloped land, and is more likely to occur on land that has been deforested or overgrazed, as the lack of vegetation leaves the soil exposed and vulnerable to erosion.
Wind erosion is caused by the movement of wind over the surface of the soil, and is more common in dry, arid regions where the soil is loose and lacks vegetation. Tillage erosion, on the other hand, is caused by the mechanical disturbance of the soil through activities such as plowing, tilling, and planting.
Soil erosion can have serious consequences for both the environment and the economy. It can lead to the loss of fertile soil, which reduces crop yields and the productivity of agricultural land. It can also contribute to desertification, the process by which fertile land becomes a desert, leading to the loss of habitats for wildlife and the displacement of people.
In addition, soil erosion can contribute to the pollution of water bodies by carrying sediment and chemicals into rivers and streams. It can also increase the risk of landslides and soil erosion can contribute to climate change by releasing carbon stored in the soil into the atmosphere.
There are several ways to prevent and control soil erosion, including the use of cover crops, terracing, and the planting of vegetation to stabilize the soil. In addition, conservation tillage, which involves the use of minimal soil disturbance during planting and harvesting, can help to reduce tillage erosion.
Overall, it is important to recognize the role that soil erosion plays in the health and productivity of our environment and to take steps to prevent and control it. By doing so, we can help to maintain the fertility of our soil, protect our water resources, and preserve the habitats of plants and animals.
What Is Soil Erosion?
It includes four types which are Sheet erosion, wind erosion, raindrop erosion and gully erosion. While it is more or less conditioned by the topographic features, climatic conditions and erosion of soil, in general, bare areas with a loose and thin surface layer overlying a heavy sub soil of low permeability, are particularly susceptible to sheet washing. In addition to the direct loss of crop producing capacity, soil erosion increases the destructiveness of floods and decreases the storage capacity of water in reservoirs. Soil erosion is a continuous process that occurs either slowly or at an alarming rate. The top soil is often blown off from the surface rendering it infertile.
Erosion 101: Everything You Need to Know About Soil Erosion
The particles loosened and shifted by the rain drops are carried down slope by a very thin sheet of water which moves along the surface. In rill erosion the runoff water tends to concentrate in thin rivulets and streamlets, which in turn tend to converge on larger channels and ditches over the whole area, thus often attaining a dendrite pattern of stream-flow. Sheet erosion is considered as dangerous as it may continue for years but may or may not leave any trace of the damage. Erosion of soil is more severe in areas of little or no surface vegetation, such as desert. Grazing The grazing animals feed on the grasses and remove the vegetation from the land. The health of the soil is of utmost importance to the farmers and the population that depends upon agriculture for food and employment. Vegetation—typical cropping as well as the strategic use of cover crops—can buffer the impact water has on a farm field.
Heavy Winds During dry weather or in the semi-arid regions, the minute soil particles are carried away by the wind to faraway lands. Ans: The effects of soil erosion include - land degradation, low crop quality and number of microbes. These disturbances make the land unfit for cultivation and consider it bad land. Besides, with the decrease in the wind velocity coarse sand particles get deposited in some areas covering the existing soil and rendering it unproductive. The leaf litter that protects the soil from erosion, is also lost during logging. When sheet erosion continues unchecked, the silt laden run-off forms well-defined minute finger shaped grooves over the entire field.
How to Prevent Soil Erosion: 15 Steps (with Pictures)
Water erosion can also have dire consequences beyond farm fields: The devastating series of floods that caused destruction in much of the Midwest The impacts of excess fertilizer can be disastrous for aquatic systems as well as public health. Shelterbelts The cover of 6. When sheet erosion continues unchecked, the silt laden run-off forms well-defined minute finger shaped grooves over the entire field. This makes the topsoil vulnerable to wind and flowing water, leading to soil erosion. Sheet erosion is more harmful since it removes the finer and more fertile topsoil. Erosion due to the wind is significant in arid and semi-arid regions.
[PDF Notes] Short essay on the Mechanism of Soil Erosion 2023
Most of the soil is eroded during winters. This also leads to loss of biodiversity, degradation of the soil, and alteration in the ecosystem. USDA NRCS Gully erosion—the washing away of soil through deep grooves or channels across unprotected land. The water may run off of compacted soil, but as it runs off it generates more force, which can increase the erosion in other areas. Besides, demand for land for providing social priorities such as shelter, roads, industrial activities is increasing at a very fast rate with the rise in population and very often good agricultural and forest lands are being diverted to such use.
Short Essay on the Soil Erosion & Its Conservation
This problem assumes alarming proportions on hills. Every year, India loses millions of amounts of soil and its nutrients to the agents of its degradation, which adversely affects our national productivity. Lay the top of the mat in the trench, fill it up with soil, then fold the mat back over the top. Van Mahotsav It is an annual tree planting festival started by the Government of India. There are several challenges to resist soil erosion, but there are solutions to prevent it as well. The flowing water during floods also erodes a lot of soil by creating potholes, rock-cut basins, etc. Also Read: Effects of Soil Erosion The major effects of soil erosion include: Loss of Arable Land Soil erosion removes the top fertile layer of the soil.
The impacts of the raindrops increases the turbulance and transporting capacity of this unchannelized sheetwash which results in the uniform skimming of the top soil. This is a natural process and is caused by the dynamic activity of various erosive agents like water, ice glaciers , snow, air wind , plants, animals, and humans. Complete answer: Soil erosion is the washing off of the upper layer of soil and this is a form of soil degradation. Steep slopes erode faster, so they need more protection. What is soil erosion? Plant native trees on steep slopes and riverbanks to reduce soil loss. There are some preventive measures for reducing soil erosion including mulching, terrace farming, intercropping, contour ploughing, shelter belts etc. It can also have health impacts: worsening air quality, obscuring visibility, and causing people to experience breathing difficulties.
This loosens the soil and makes it more vulnerable to erosion. After many years of overplowing, poor land management, and drought, millions of acres of formerly productive farmland in the Midwest and Southern Plains dried up. Changes in rainfall and water levels can shift soil, extreme fluctuations in temperature can make topsoil more vulnerable to erosion, and prolonged droughts can prevent plants from growing, leaving soil further exposed. Put the logs down across the slope, 10 to 25 feet 3—8m apart. In hilly area how can we conserve? Land degradation problems have resulted in increasing depletion of the productivity of the basic land stock through nutrient deficiencies.
Terrace Farming In hilly areas, farming is done by cutting steps on the slopes of the hills. Plant roots hold the soil together, while their leaves block rain and stop it from breaking the soil apart. Climate Change and Erosion Many communities across the United States have been experiencing firsthand the tragic consequences of climate change, including more frequent flooding, longer wildfire seasons, more intense droughts, and coastal erosion due to sea level rise. Grazing is basically a method to raise domestic animals. Sheet erosion is common in the Himalayan foothills, in Assam, Western ghats and Eastern ghats. Though often inconspicuous, it is the most insidious type of soil erosion, resulting in the gradual removal of dark coloured humus-charged surface layer and exposure of relatively infertile subsoil strata, accompanied by a gradual fall in the yield. This has been worsening due to human activities such as agriculture and deforestation.