Temperature as an ecological factor in plants. Temperature an Ecological Factor by Salman Saeed 2022-10-23
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Temperature is a vital ecological factor that affects the growth, development, and distribution of plants. In general, plants have evolved to thrive within a narrow range of temperatures, and deviations from this optimal range can have significant impacts on plant health and survival.
At the cellular level, temperature can influence the rates of chemical reactions within plants, including those involved in photosynthesis and respiration. As a result, temperature can affect plant growth and productivity. For example, higher temperatures can increase the rate of photosynthesis, leading to faster plant growth. However, extreme temperatures can also have negative effects, such as reducing the efficiency of photosynthesis or damaging plant tissues.
Temperature also influences the distribution and abundance of plant species. Plants have adapted to specific temperature ranges and can be found in regions where temperatures are within their optimal range. For example, tropical plants are adapted to warm temperatures and are found in regions with high average temperatures, while arctic plants are adapted to cold temperatures and are found in regions with low average temperatures. In addition, temperature can affect the timing of plant growth and development, such as the timing of flowering or the production of seeds.
Temperature can also interact with other ecological factors to influence plant growth and distribution. For example, temperature can affect the availability of water, as higher temperatures can increase the rate of evaporation and reduce soil moisture. In addition, temperature can influence the distribution and abundance of herbivores, as warmer temperatures can increase the activity of insects and other herbivores.
Overall, temperature is a critical ecological factor that affects the growth, development, and distribution of plants. Understanding the ways in which temperature impacts plants can help us to better understand and manage plant ecosystems and the services they provide, such as the production of food, fiber, and medicine.
Light and temperature, light and temperature as ecological factors
Depending on the situation and the specific plant, the effect of temperature can either speed up or slow down this transition. Bark and buds are sometimes eroded away from the windward sides of woody stems if they are situated in exposed locality. In soils with a high C:N ratio, more N should be supplied. Coarse silt, of diameter 0. The greater the difference in humidity, the faster water moves. A Rainfall and Other Atmospheric Precipitations : ADVERTISEMENTS: Rainfall affects indirectly through the medium of other ecological factors.
Horizon C: It is at the bottom of the soil profile and represents the more or less unmodified parent material which is in the form of weathered rock. A plant cannot survive under conditions where loss of water by transpiration is greater than gain in water by absorption from the soil. Interveinal chlorosis, primarily on young tissue, which eventually may turn white. Atmospheric nitrogen is inert, and it is converted to available forms for plants by microbial activity, thunder and also by biological nitrogen fixation. Herbivores obtain their nitrogen requirements from plants and carnivores from herbivores.
Ecological Factors that Affect the Growth of Plants (With Diagrams)
The basic framework of most soils consists of small fragments of mineral matters which have been derived from the parent rock by disintegration by weathering agencies, both physical and chemical. The short-day plants in general develop flowers when the days are less than 13 to 14 hours long e. Interrelationship between Soil Microorganisms and Plants: A large number of plants and animals, as listed below, live under the soil surface and as a result of their activities vegetation on the surface is greatly affected. In general, the best NH 4+:NO 3- ratio is 1:1. In this kind of association, both are mutually benefitted. The fatty oil in the form of emulsion depresses the freezing point and increases the power of resistance to frost.
Temperature of Ecological Factors (complete information)
Actually cultivation of the soil and growing of food crops are biotic factors due to intense human interference. Photosynthesis increases in CO 2 up to 15 to 20 times of what it is in normal air. However, organism can still survive, though with low efficiency, at a temperature below minimum or above maximum the optimum temperature. Directly it operates in two important ways: i It affects the rate of different physiological processes of the plants and consequently influences their germination, rate of growth and development. Hydroxyl ions, on the other hand, stabilize the dispersed state of the clay. Calcifuge plants are typical of sandy soils.
Temperature an Ecological Factor childhealthpolicy.vumc.org
The continuing action of heat, wind, water, etc. The maximum temperature in marine environments of any size is mostly 36°C in Persian Gulf. But due to lower moisture-holding capacity of light sandy soils they become warm much sooner in spring than the clay. Short-day long-night plants require a long period of uninterrupted darkness to flower. Microorganisms living in soil release CO 2 by respiration and increase the percentage of soil-CO 2. For example, high temperatures cause bitter lettuce.
Relics of an ancient era, survivors of a former prevailing flora, are referred to as Epibiotic. Shows up as Fe deficiency. They make up the deficiency of nitrogen by eating the insects. Considering high temperature injury of plants, aside from its role in desiccation and in bringing about disparity in the balance of respiration and photosynthesis, respiration is greatly in excess of photosynthesis high temperature injures and kills protoplasm. Calotropis, Ficus, flowers of family Compositae etc. Changes in Temperature a Horizontal changes The changes in temperature from place to place over the surface of the earth vary considerably.
Light: The energy necessary to sustain life on earth is derived from sunlight directly by green plants or indirectly by other heterotrophic organisms which must eventually depend upon various organic compounds synthesise by the green plants only. Plants growing at higher altitudes show stunted growth because of the effects of wind. As it directly affects the amount of available soil water, the annual rainfall is a major factor in determining the distribution of plants. For when clays reach a degree of dispersion of 0. A comparatively dry warm climate, on the other hand, may result in alternate upward and downward movement of soil-water derived from rainfall. Growth, differentiation and tropic movements are influenced chiefly by the blue-violet and ultra-violet rays.
Dead plant organs and animal bodies are acted upon by microorganisms and become incorporated into mineral substances. Absorption of mineral elements, therefore, depends upon cation exchange capacity of the soil. If a sudden, severe cold snap follows the warm spell, otherwise hardy plants can be seriously damaged. Field capacity is the total amount of water in the soil, except the gravitational water. The soil is also essentially affected, sometimes even newly created soil, e.
Ecological Factors in Plants: Top 4 Types (With Diagram)
If the erosion is rapid enough, the habitat may be absolutely devoid of any plant community. They are also autotrophs and do not obtain food from the supporting plant, e. Clay soils are wet, heavy compared to sandy soils which are light and warm and cold as they warm up only very slowly. Under alkaline conditions, fixed with Ca. Indirect effects of wind are more significant.