Bureau of indian affairs 1824. Bureau of Indian Affairs 2022-10-17
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The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) was established in 1824 as the Office of Indian Affairs within the War Department. Its primary function was to oversee the administration of Indian affairs and to serve as a liaison between the federal government and Native American tribes. The BIA was created in response to the growing number of interactions between European settlers and Native American tribes, as well as the increasing complexity of Indian affairs as more Native American lands were acquired by the United States.
The early years of the BIA were marked by a series of policies designed to assimilate Native Americans into mainstream American society. These policies included the removal of Native Americans from their traditional lands, the forced relocation of Native American children to boarding schools, and the termination of tribal governments. Many of these policies were implemented without regard for the rights or interests of Native Americans, and they had a devastating impact on Native American communities.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the BIA began to shift its focus from assimilation to cultural preservation. This shift was reflected in the passage of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, which recognized the right of Native American tribes to self-governance and provided funding for the development of tribal governments. The BIA also began to promote the development of Indian-owned businesses and to support the education of Native American students.
Today, the BIA continues to play a critical role in the administration of Indian affairs. It is responsible for managing the trust lands of Native American tribes, providing education and social services to Native American communities, and working with tribal governments to negotiate and enforce treaties with the federal government. The BIA also plays a key role in the development of natural resources on Native American lands and in the promotion of cultural preservation and economic development within Native American communities.
Despite these efforts, the BIA has faced criticism and controversy over the years. Many Native American communities have accused the BIA of failing to adequately represent their interests and of neglecting the needs of Native American communities. Additionally, the BIA has been criticized for its handling of Indian trust lands and for its failure to adequately compensate Native American communities for the use of their lands.
Overall, the Bureau of Indian Affairs has played a complex and controversial role in the history of the United States. While it has made significant efforts to support the cultural preservation and economic development of Native American communities, it has also been criticized for its past policies of assimilation and its ongoing failure to fully address the needs and concerns of Native American communities.
Bureau of Indian Affairs
Retrieved June 30, 2021. The letters pertain to the operations of the field offices, including reports of conditions, needs of the office, requisitions of funds and supplies, etc. Georgia, President Jackson and John C. Calhoun created a plan for removal. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
The Bureau of Indian Affairs was formed on March 11, 1824, by Secretary of War John C. Sometimes the military had to engage in conflicts, which had a financial cost. The removal of the Cherokee Nation occurred in 1838 and was accompanied by the Treaty of 1846. Along with providing programs and services to Indian tribes and managing land that the U. He was turned down. However, this has been a difficult task as the BIA is known by many Indians as playing a police role in which the U. Despite the rulings of Worcester v.
Retrieved December 4, 2020. McKenney, former head of the Office of Indian Trade, as its first director. The Five Civilized Tribes as they attempted to assimilate into the American culture of the time. This led to mass removal and relocation, such as the Trail of Tears. A History of the Bureau of Indian affairs and Its Activities Among Indians. Archived from PDF on June 10, 2014.
Office of Special Trustee, n. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Co. Retrieved December 12, 2020. Lists of tribal members before their removal from one locality to another and muster rolls of the individual Indians actually moved may be included in the "Emigration" files.
He went before congress and gave a speech discussing the importance of In May 1830, Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act. Native Americans and Public Policy. Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States relating to American Indians. How did the government proceed? After the Civil War, Parker continued to serve Ulysses S. They also lost rights, as with the Supreme Court's Right of Occupancy decision. One, that the Indian became a productive member of society, financially independent, and a contributor to the total of human welfare. White settlers sought support from the federal government in their efforts to settle land in the south and the west.
Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824
Retrieved June 8, 2012. Once the Civil War began, Parker wanted to join the service, at first in the ranks with a regiment of Iroquois volunteers. Americans' perception of Indians factored into this as well. Indian American Removal The idea of removing indigenous people from their native goes back to the Timeline of the Era of Native American Removal Date Event Result 1803 The Lousiana Purchase The US had acquired a large chunk of native land 1814 Andrew Jackson commanded a military force that fought the Creek tribe Creeks lost millions of acres of land in Georgia and Alabama 1814-1828 Voluntary migration began with small amounts of The US government gained control of huge portions of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, Mississippi, and North Carolina 1818 Troops invaded The US government acquired more native land in Florida 1823 Right Of Occupancy decision made by the US Supreme Court It was decided that indigenous people could occupy the land, but could not claim it. When the Bureau of Indian Affairs was established in 1824, it made it even easier for the federal government to subjugate the native people. The Indian Removal Act was approved and enforced by Andrew Jackson. It had been a long time coming, but would not, in many ways, solve the basic problem or problems between Indian affairs and the way the government of the United States, or the states themselves, treated the Indian tribe populations through agreed treaties or harsh settlements.
Source Info: The Life and Times of Eli S. Federal Fathers and Mothers: A Social History of the United States Indian Service, 1869—1933 U of North Carolina Press, 2011 368 pp. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. Grant, then became part of the renegotiation of treaties with Southern tribes. This settlement, "supported the position of the Cherokee that the cost of maintaining the tribesman during their removal and the years upkeep after their arrival West should be paid by the federal government, and the expense of the removal agents should be paid as well. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
Part of the potential for alliances between tribes and the BIA springs from its employment of Native Americans. During this time, he participated in the removal and relocation of several Native American tribes. In 1947, the name was changed to the Bureau of Indian Affairs. But the volume of the correspondence can be somewhat daunting. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
Prior to 1824, most of the Indian affairs in the United States was directly supervised by the Secretary of War. But now, Secretary of War John C. For many tribes, the bureau has represented mistrust, fraud, and cultural destruction; for the national government it has represented both the goal of fair dealing and the reality of mistreatment. In 1833 Georgians fought for the removal of the Cherokee Nation from the state of Georgia. It emphasized being educated to European-American culture. This policy, leading to the Trail of Tears of sixty thousand Native Americans, including the Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole, and Cherokee nation, the last forced removal in 1838, was assuaged in political terms by the thought that because the removal was paid for, and in many ways approved by treaty, and in other ways their life paid for years upon their arrival in new western lands, that it was just. Under the guise of a treaty, the government made agreements with various tribes stating that they would move to the new territory so the government can claim their native land.