Government of india act 1935. Government Of India Act 1935 2022-10-09
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The Government of India Act 1935 was a major milestone in the history of India's constitutional development. It was the longest and most detailed constitution that India had ever had, and it served as the basis for the country's government for more than two decades.
The Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1935 and came into effect on April 1, 1937. It was the result of extensive consultations with Indian political leaders and was designed to provide a new constitutional framework for the governance of India.
One of the main aims of the Act was to devolve power from the central government to the provinces, and it did this by establishing a federal structure of government. The Act divided the country into 11 provinces, each with its own governor and legislature, and it also established a system of federal subjects, which were areas of shared jurisdiction between the central and provincial governments.
Another key feature of the Act was the introduction of a bicameral federal legislature, comprising the Council of States and the Federal Assembly. The Council of States was a upper house, with members chosen by the princely states and nominated by the governor-general, while the Federal Assembly was a lower house, with members elected by universal adult suffrage.
The Act also provided for the establishment of a Federal Court, which had the power to interpret the Constitution and to resolve disputes between the central and provincial governments. It also established a system of advisory committees, made up of representatives from various sectors of society, to provide input to the government on policy matters.
In addition to these structural changes, the Act also made significant advances in the area of civil liberties and individual rights. It introduced safeguards against arbitrary detention and provided for the freedom of expression, assembly, and association. It also granted women the right to vote and stand for election to the legislature.
Overall, the Government of India Act 1935 represented a major step forward in the development of India's constitutional democracy. It established the basic framework for the country's government and provided a solid foundation for the future growth and development of the nation.
Modern History Simplified: Government of India Act of 1935
Features of Government of India Act 1935 The GoI Act 1935 was passed by the British parliament in August 1935 to satisfy the nationalist demands for a responsible government in India. One of the reasons for the enactment of the act were the Indian Leaders who urged and fought to bring reforms in the country through these acts. The Congress demanded, instead, convening of a Constituent Assembly elected on the basis of adult franchise to frame a constitution for independent India. In all likelihood, these representatives would be largely Congressmen. That remained the situation until the Indian subcontinent was partitioned into the two dominions of Pakistan and India after the British withdrawal in 1947. Though the provinces could act as an independent authority within their acquired areas, the centre had a ruling authority over them. Today, this constitution is the source of justice for the common man.
The provisions and the material for the act were mainly derived from the Nehru Report, Lothian report, Simon Commission Report, the White papers, the Joint Selection Commission Report to form the act. Bharatmata is bharatgavi also. In reckoning any such period of six months as is referred to in this subsection, no account shall be taken of any time during which the Legislature is prorogued or during which both Chambers are adjourned for more than four days. They were not responsible to the legislature. Each part wasfurther divided into chapters.
However, the Liberals and even elements in the Congress were tepidly willing to give it a go: "Linlithgow asked Sapru whether he thought there was a satisfactory alternative to the scheme of the 1935 Act. The authority of Federal Railways lay under the Governor General of India and was not answerable to any other power. However, the houses were to work under many restrictions. Although the foundation of the Indian constitution was laid down after its independence, it still had various features adapted from the British Constitution. There are very detailed provisions requiring the Viceroy to intervene if, in his unappealable view, any Indian law or regulation is intended to, or will, in fact, discriminate against UK resident British subjects, British registered companies and, particularly, British shipping interests.
London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Churchill: A Study in Failure 1900—1939. A major contributing factor was the continuing distrust of British intentions for which there was ' I don't believe that… it is impossible to present the problem in such a form as would make the shop window look respectable from an Indian point of view, which is really what they care about while keeping your hand pretty firmly on the things that matter. The intention had been that a review of India's constitutional arrangements would be held ten years on from the 1919 Act. It served as a milestone and paved the way for a responsible form of government in India. It was based on a report by a Joint Select Committee, led by Lord Linlithgow, set up the two houses of the British parliament. So that the flaws that were there in the Act of 1919 could be corrected.
To know more about the Governor Generals of Bengal and India , visit the linked article. Some were to be nominated by the Governor-General. Government of India Act 1935 - Modern Indian History NCERT Notes for UPSC The Government of India Act was passed by the British Parliament in August 1935. However, there were powers that lay with both the centre and the states. The Features of this act were as follows; 1-it provided for the establishment of all Indian federations consisting of provinces and princely states as units. Candidates who opt for History as their optional subject in UPSC can check the following links for reference:. The Council of States was the upper house with directly elected members from the provinces and members nominated by the princes in a ratio of 60:40.
Government of India Act 1935: Features, Analysis & More for UPSC!
But the reality is lacking, for the powers in defence and external affairs necessarily, as matters stand, given to the governor-general limit vitally the scope of ministerial activity, and the measure of representation given to the rulers of the Indian States negatives any possibility of even the beginnings of democratic control. Remarks The Government of IndiaAct was passed by the British parliament in 1935 and came into effect in 1937. The idea of dyarchy was imposed so that better administration could be done and the governor general was appointed to look after and coordinate among the two parts of the government. Autocratic rule, "informed by wisdom, exercised in moderation and vitalized by a spirit of service to the interests of the subject, may well prove that it can make an appeal in India as strong as that of representative and responsible institutions. Also, voting rights were limited to only 10% of the population, not making the government democratic. Gandhi was not over-worried, said Birla, by the reservation of defence and external affairs to the centre, but was concentrating on the method of choosing the States' representatives. This reflects a deep contradiction in British views of India and its future.
Since the one common concern of the 600 or so Princes was their desire to continue to rule their states without interference, this was indeed a mortal threat. The provinces in British India would have to join the federation but this was not compulsory for the princely states. Henceforth, they derived their legal authority directly from the British crown. You shall have nothing to do, or, for all practical purposes in future, you shall have nothing to do with your currency and exchange, for indeed the Reserve Bank Bill just passed has a further reservation in the Constitution that no legislation may be undertaken with a view to substantially alter the provisions of that Act except with the consent of the Governor-General…. .
The eastern sector of Bengal, largely Muslim, became…. Legislature, there shall be freedom of speech in the Legislature, and no member of the Legislature shall be liable to any proceedings in any court in respect of anything said or any vote given by him in the Legislature or any committee thereof , and no person shall be so liable to any proceedings in any court in respect of anything said or any vote given by him in the Legislature or any committee thereof, and no person shall be so liable in respect of the publication by or under the authority of either Chamber of the Legislature of any report, paper, votes or proceedings. Every minister, every counsellor and the Rights of Advocate-General shall have the right to speak in, and otherwise to take part in the proceedings of, either Chamber, any joint sitting of the Chambers, and any committee of the Legislature of which he may be named a member, but shall not by virtue of this section be entitled to vote. For example, the act forbids. The subjects in this list included local government, forests, education, health, etc. Most people seemed to expect them to develop representative institutions.