David reimer experiment. David Reimer and John Money Gender Reassignment Controversy: The John/Joan Case 2022-10-12
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The David Reimer experiment, also known as the John/Joan case, was a controversial study conducted in the 1960s and 1970s by Dr. John Money, a psychologist and sexologist at Johns Hopkins University. The experiment involved a young boy named David Reimer, who was born as a twin but suffered a traumatic injury to his genitals during a circumcision procedure when he was just eight months old. As a result of the injury, Reimer's penis was severely damaged and he was unable to urinate normally.
In an effort to address this issue, Money and his colleagues recommended that Reimer undergo a sex reassignment surgery, in which his testicles would be removed and he would be raised as a girl. The surgery was performed when Reimer was 22 months old, and he was given the name Brenda. Money and his team believed that with the proper socialization and upbringing, Reimer could be successfully raised as a girl and would be able to live a normal, healthy life.
However, the experiment was a failure. Despite the surgery and being raised as a girl, Reimer always felt like a boy and struggled with gender identity issues. He experienced significant psychological distress and struggled in school and with relationships. When Reimer was 13 years old, his parents revealed the truth about his birth and the surgery to him. He then decided to transition back to living as a male and changed his name back to David.
The David Reimer experiment has been widely criticized for a number of reasons. First, it was based on the flawed premise that gender identity is purely a result of socialization and can be completely changed through medical intervention. In reality, gender identity is a complex and multifaceted aspect of a person's identity that is influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain structure, and prenatal hormonal influences.
Second, the experiment was conducted without informed consent from Reimer or his parents. They were not fully informed of the potential risks and consequences of the surgery and were not given the opportunity to consider alternative treatment options.
Finally, the experiment resulted in significant harm to Reimer. He experienced ongoing psychological distress and struggled with his identity and relationships throughout his life. He eventually committed suicide at the age of 38.
The David Reimer experiment is a cautionary tale of the dangers of attempting to manipulate and change an individual's gender identity through medical intervention. It highlights the importance of informed consent, respect for an individual's autonomy, and the need to consider the potential risks and consequences of such interventions. It also underscores the need to recognize and respect the inherent diversity of gender identity and to support individuals in their journey of self-discovery and self-expression.
David Reimer: Summary And Contradictive Experiments
New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2000. Suffering in adolescence Brenda grew up and her life progressively deteriorated. Later the penis went into necrosis, and a few days later, it was detached from the body. Money advised the Reimer family that David should have an operation to reconstruct an artificial vagina, and once the operation was finished, David had to receive an education according to his new gender: that is, the education that a girl would receive. They determine how males and females should think, speak, dress, behave and interact with society.
After picking up Brenda from a psychologist appointment in 1980, Ron Reimer drove both his children to an ice cream parlor where he told them the whole story. The case of David Reimer is a case involving serious child abuse. Is it possible that your biological sex can determine your gender? Possible solution: transsexual David Reimer The development of genital reconstruction surgery was at a very early stage, which augured few options for little David. Money told David Reimer's parents to raise him as a girl. He refused to undergo further operations and his suicide attempts were becoming serious.
The Tragedy Of David Reimer, The Boy Unwillingly Raised As A Girl
As nature made him: The boy who was raised as a girl. His parents were deceived when they gave consent and they did not know what it entailed, nor did they know that it was even a study. Most importantly, David was never shown the right to be protected from harm or discomfort. Physicians at the Throughout his childhood, Reimer received annual checkups from Money. It just kept building up and building up.
David Reimer, el experimento más polémico de la psicología
But the physical stress wore on his mental health. David Reimer: una niñez marcada David Reimer nació en 1965 en Winnipeg, Canadá, siendo hermano gemelo monocigótico de otro bebé llamado Brian. He saw Bruce as the perfect patient to test on because he was the only developmentally normal child to receive a sex change. In Plante, Rebecca F. Ha ejercido como psicólogo escolar y deportivo en distintas instituciones y como consultor de marketing digital para distintas empresas y start-ups, pero su verdadera vocación es la dirección de medios digitales y el desarrollo de proyectos empresariales vinculados a las nuevas tecnologías.
David Reimer: el experimento psicológico más cruel
At the age of thirteen, Reimer threatened to commit suicide if his parents took him to Money on the next annual visit. Una de las escenas más estremecedoras de las terapias con Money, según relata David, es que el doctor les obligaba a quitarse la ropa en contra de la voluntad de los pequeños, y obligó a Brenda a ponerse a cuatro patas mientras su hermano Brian realizaba movimientos y tocamientos pseudosexuales contra la parte trasera de su hermana, en una escena que denominaban "ensayo sexual". Sin embargo, el médico siempre negó estas prácticas. Retrieved 19 May 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2020. Both Reimer and Brian were traumatized by the therapy, Money never commented publicly on Colapinto's book or on Reimer's suicide before his death, although colleagues said he was "mortified" by the case.
The Tragic Life & Death of David Reimer, The Boy Raised as a Girl • Morbidology
Posible solución: transexuar a David Reimer El desarrollo de la cirugía de reconstrucción genital se encontraba en una fase muy prematura, lo que auguraba pocas opciones para el pequeño David. But when he was three years old, he stopped urinating and was in a lot of pain. In August 1965 Janet Reimer gave birth to her twins Bruce and Brian in a small Canadian town of Winipeg. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. Si algo se puede sacar en claro de la historia, es que los determinismos deben ser siempre cuestionables.
David Reimer and John Money Gender Reassignment Controversy: The John/Joan Case
For example, features that are overly masculine in one culture can be seen as feminine in another; however, the relation between the two should not be seen as static. Brian nunca logró superar aquellos años. When she finally comes out about something that is seen as controversial to many people, such as being transgender. When Reimer complained about feeling like a boy, his parents and other adults convinced him that it was just a phase. Psychological Science in the Public Interest.
. Retrieved 19 December 2014. Who was David Reimer? Money era traumática, en lugar de terapéutica, y cuando él comenzó a presionar a los padres para que finalmente hicieran la cirugía de construcción de una vagina en Brenda, la familia decidió interrumpir las visitas de supervisión. Durante varios años, el Dr. There have been many other celebrities that have been here before but never has it involved someone of such public importance whose transition is happening for everyone to see. David also recalls receiving anger and verbal abuse from Money if they resisted participation. Scientist defend what determines our gender identity is our upbringing which sticks up for nurture not nature.
David Reimer: the cruellest psychological experiment
His case led to a decline in the number of sex reassignment surgeries for unambiguous XY male infants with a micropenis and other congenital malformations and brought into question the malleability of gender and sex. Her twin brother developed schizophrenia. New York: Harper Perennial published 2006. Later the penis went into necrosis, and a few days later, it was detached from the body. He married a woman but remained so unhappy that, like Murphy, he committed suicide at 38. He refused to undergo further operations and his suicide attempts were becoming serious.
According to his brother Brian, the only feature that differentiated Brenda from him was her long hair, and based on the children's unconsciousness, one can imagine the cruelty with which Brenda had to be treated during her school years. Frecuentemente, los hermanos acudían a la consulta de John Money con el fin que éste fuera evaluando el desarrollo de los niños. In back-to-back shows on Tuesday and Wednesday nights, CNN anchor Anderson Cooper is More on TIME. I had a surgeon who … Read more » My son was born 5 weeks premature and had some health issues because of it. Accordingly, Reimer claimed he developed a lifelong distrust of hospitals and medical professionals. El temor de los padres era que algún día Brenda se diera cuenta de su verdadera sexualidad que no hacía nada más que aumentar, pero los problemas apenas y estaban comenzando. Nurture had surpassed nature.