Piper alpha pdf. Piper Alpha: The Disaster in Detail 2022-10-17
Piper alpha pdf
Testing a leaf for starch is a common experiment in biology classrooms, as it allows students to understand the process of photosynthesis and how plants use energy. In this lab report, we will outline the materials and methods used, describe the results of the experiment, and discuss the implications of these results.
- Fresh leaf from a green plant
- Iodine solution
- Test tube
- Glass stirring rod
- Paper towels
- Obtain a fresh leaf from a green plant and gently wash it with water to remove any dirt or debris.
- Fill a beaker with water and add a few drops of iodine solution.
- Use a dropper to place a small drop of the iodine solution onto the leaf.
- Observe the color of the iodine on the leaf. If the leaf contains starch, the iodine will turn blue or black. If the leaf does not contain starch, the iodine will remain yellow or orange.
- Repeat the process with a few additional drops of iodine to confirm the results.
- If necessary, use a glass stirring rod to scrape a small piece of tissue from the leaf and place it in a test tube. Add a few drops of iodine solution to the test tube and observe the color change.
In our experiment, we found that the iodine turned blue or black when applied to the leaf, indicating the presence of starch. When a small piece of tissue was placed in a test tube and mixed with iodine solution, the solution also turned blue or black. These results suggest that the leaf we tested contains starch.
Starch is a complex carbohydrate that plants use to store energy. It is produced during photosynthesis, when the plant uses energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose. The glucose is then converted into starch and stored in the plant's tissues, such as leaves, stems, and roots.
The presence of starch in the leaf we tested confirms that the plant is able to carry out photosynthesis and produce glucose. This is important for the plant's survival, as it allows the plant to store energy for times when sunlight is not available, such as at night or during periods of low light intensity.
Overall, testing a leaf for starch is a simple and effective way to understand the process of photosynthesis and the role of starch in plant metabolism. It also helps students learn how to use scientific equipment and follow experimental procedures, which are important skills for any aspiring scientist.
Piper Alpha: The Disaster in Detail
The requirement to export gas — with the associated separation of condensate — was an afterthought and involved extensive modification. The Public Inquiry into the Piper Alpha Disaster, Presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for Energy by Command of Her Majesty Report. Emergency response — evacuation One of the most shocking aspects of the Piper Alpha tragedy was the inability to evacuate the personnel on board. On other rigs this was managed by close communication with divers and a temporary override used only when the divers were working within a short distance of the inlets, a relatively rare occurrence. It was assumed that, whatever happened, evacuation would be at least substantially by helicopter.
The emergency shutdown valve on the Piper Alpha oil export line appears to have failed to close tightly, allowing the oil from Tartan and Claymore to take the easier reverse route onto Piper Alpha. And what lessons can still be learned today? Retrieved 3 February 2017. Retrieved 3 February 2017. The condensate was collected in a large vessel connected to two parallel condensate pumps duty and standby and injected into the oil for export to Flotta. Twenty minutes later, at about 22. When did I last audit a critical procedure on night shift? It was chaired by the Scottish judge Public Inquiry into the Piper Alpha Disaster short: Cullen Report in November 1990. Was there adequate training? Archived from PDF on 4 October 2013.
Get up from your desk. From that moment on, the platform's destruction was inevitable. Shutdown of oil production only started on Tartan at about 22. How is my facility connected to other facilities, what could go wrong at the interface? This included climbing down knotted ropes and jumping, from as high as the helideck, over 50 metres above sea level. By the early morning of 07 July 1988, three-quarters of the original topsides, together with significant sections of the jacket, had been destroyed and lay in a tangled mass on the sea bed 140 metres below. The platform floor consisted of steel grates and under normal circumstances would have allowed the burning oil to drip harmlessly into the sea, but divers on the previous shift had placed rubber matting on the metal grate likely to cushion their bare feet from the sharp metal grates , allowing the oil to form a burning puddle on the platform.
The sequential failure of the gas lines then caused a rapid escalation of the disaster. The Tartan field also fed oil to Claymore field and then onto the main line to Flotta. Retrieved 13 July 2020. However, the operators were busy with their own handovers at the same time, and the practice developed where maintenance would sign off the permit and leave it in the control room or safety office. It is not known whether the initial explosion on Piper ruptured the fire water ring main or damaged the control system for the fire pumps.
A gas recovery module was installed by 1980. Handover inadequate transfer of information between crews, shifts and disciplines ; 5. The Occidental procedure required maintenance and operations to meet, inspect the work site and sign off permits together. The heavier fractions of gas condensed as a liquid essentially propane and the rest of the gas mainly methane continued to export. It is likely that electrical power was knocked out, but there was a diesel back-up. Fifty minutes later, at about 22.
Switch off the computer. A golden opportunity to put these right was missed. Oil was exported through a sub-sea line, 128 miles long, to the purpose-built refinery on the island of Flotta in the Orkneys. When did I last test each part of my emergency response in practice? This delayed shut-down on the other platforms, particularly on Claymore and Tartan. Witnesses heard a sustained high-pitched screeching noise followed by the flash and whoomph of an explosion.
While technical measures are essential for safety, they are in no sense sufficient. Safety also requires an appropriate management structure — and that structure must be maintained throughout the whole life of a project from design, through change to decommissioning. Retrieved 5 April 2022. The Tharos was driven off by the heat, which began to melt the surrounding machinery and steelwork. Of the 226 people on board that night, only 61 survived. But a regulations-bound system falls down because practices not covered by regulations are simply not addressed.
Piper Alpha proved spectacularly productive and when the operator, Occidental, sought permission to increase rates, permission was granted on condition that gas should also be exported instead of being flared. The Public Inquiry sat for a total of 180 days. The remains of Piper Alpha were toppled into the sea on 28 March 1989. Retrieved 6 November 2020. Lord William Douglas November 1990. Interconnection no rig is an island… ; 6. Testimonials were heard from survivors and relatives of victims.
When fire broke out on Piper Alpha, the only way to activate the fire-fighting system was to start the pumps locally. . Investigation and analysis One week after the disaster, Lord Cullen was appointed to hold a Public Inquiry into the accident. Retrieved 25 July 2009. But do something about it.
After the rupture of the first gas line, Piper Alpha was doomed. Management of Change design issues Piper Alpha was designed to produce and export oil. Retrieved 3 February 2017. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. The control room was badly damaged in the first explosions the control room operator survived and gave valuable evidence to the Public Inquiry on the sequence of alarms preceding those first explosions. The safety systems on Tharos, good as they were, had never been tested in such extreme conditions before.