The Book of Exodus, the second book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament, tells the story of the Israelites' exodus from slavery in Egypt. This event is considered one of the most significant events in the history of the Israelites, as it marks the beginning of their journey towards becoming a nation and receiving the Law from God through Moses.
According to the biblical narrative, the Israelites lived in Egypt for several generations after Joseph, one of their ancestors, had been sold into slavery and rose to a position of power in the Egyptian government. However, a new Pharaoh came to power who did not remember Joseph and the Israelites' service to Egypt. He began to fear the Israelites, who had become numerous and prosperous, and so he made them slaves, forcing them to work on his building projects and treating them cruelly.
The Israelites cried out to God for help, and God chose Moses, an Israelite who had been raised in the Pharaoh's household, to be their leader and deliver them from slavery. God commanded Moses to go to Pharaoh and demand that he let the Israelites go, but Pharaoh refused. In response, God sent a series of plagues upon Egypt, culminating in the death of every firstborn son in the land. This event, known as the Passover, finally convinced Pharaoh to release the Israelites.
The Israelites left Egypt in a hurry, taking with them only what they could carry and leaving behind their possessions. They followed God's instructions and celebrated the Passover, which involved slaughtering a lamb and spreading its blood over the doorposts of their homes. This was a sign to God to pass over the Israelites' homes and spare their firstborn sons, as he had done in Egypt.
The Israelites traveled through the wilderness, led by God's presence in a pillar of cloud by day and a pillar of fire by night. They received the Law from God through Moses on Mount Sinai, and they eventually arrived at the land of Canaan, which God had promised to give them.
The story of the Israelites' exodus from Egypt is a powerful and enduring tale that has had a significant impact on the history and religion of the Israelites and many other cultures. It is a story of God's faithfulness and power, and it serves as a reminder that God is always with us, even in times of hardship and struggle.
Exodus by Terence E. Fretheim (9780804231022)
It is also important to recognize, however, that it is not simply so; the issues, as we have seen, are cosmic as well as historical. Moses, however, was not satisfied, and neither were the now very contrite people vv. A new intensification of divine activity 2:23—25 gives promise for a changed future. It is certainly a composite, drawing on various traditions. Fretheim urges us to look at Exodus from a rhetorical perspective. God places the relationship with Israel on a new footing.
Exodus: Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching
This, however, but has little effect in removing the mystery surrounding God, it only serves to surround him with further ambiguity. He bore it out of the world. Only in service to God can service without bondage be found. I Nijay take a more conservative reading of Exodus, but I think Fretheim is right to focus on rhetoric and the nature of historiography in ANE documents. Fretheim, The Suffering of God, 1. The importance of the spoken dialogue between Moses and God continues throughout Chapter 3 and is, according to Fretheim, of theological relevance. These beautiful words introduce an entirely new concept into the previously agreed-upon covenant.
As someone honored to call Professor Fretheim a teacher, colleague, and friend, I would like to offer a few reflections on his life and work as a biblical interpreter. While I could never agree with most of his conclusions, he still noted things worthy of tracing like the key transitional sections. If God has begun to fulfill promises, and in such an extraordinary way, is there not hope that other promises will be fulfilled, not least the gift of a land? The majority of pages are undamaged with minimal creasing or tearing, minimal pencil underlining of text, no highlighting of text, no writing in margins. Whom Will Israel Serve? The Introduction begins with the big picture of what we have in Exodus. Unlike other revelations, God does not attempt to appear awash power and might. Under a regime of slavery, subjects become objects. Tittel Exodus: Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching Forfatter Terence E.
This speech is unknowingly filled with irony. This is a major shift in vocabulary usage. The God who redeems has been at work in life-giving ways all along the journey cf. What does it mean that God chooses to share genuine power and responsibility with imperfect creatures? The next section testifies that such a danger is real; divine redemptive activity will be needed. The struggle in which Israel and its God are engaged is both historical and creational see at 15:1.
A summary of Terence Fretheim’s Exodus 3: A Theological Interpretation Essay Example
Terence Fretheim has received several accolades for this work on Exodus. But when describing the situation after the golden calf episode Deuteronomy 9:13—29 , the dominant word becomes love Hebrew aheb , repeated seven times in chapters 10 and 11, and also seven times in chapters 6 and 7 including one instance of hesed, steadfast love. A book that has been read but is in good condition. This is a new covenant grounded in a new act of God on behalf of Israel. What is important finally is the kind of God in whom one believes.
Of particular note, as it is found in the same chapter that introduces the idea of "new covenant," is Jeremiah 31:2, 3 which reads, "Thus says the LORD: 'The people who survived the sword found grace in the wilderness; when Israel sought for rest, the LORD appeared to him from afar. As friends and family of Terence Fretheim, we now find ourselves bearing the heavy burden of loss and pain. God is dependant upon a human being in order to deliver his promises and, likewise, Moses is dependent upon the divine for the sight and direction he needs. How seldom it has been acknowledged! If Israel is loyal to Yahweh, then that faithfulness will be manifested in obedience to the commandments; faithlessness to Yahweh will be manifested in a life of disobedience. Fretheim, God So Enters into Relationship That…: A Biblical View Minneapolis: Fortress, 2020 , 4. What follows is the story of Israel, the people of God.
The commentary itself would fall into the mid-length category, but is especially theologically perceptive. Unless their growth is curtailed, they may become a fifth column in time of war and escape. Moses' response to this incredible revelation is to make haste to bow and worship Exod. I received this book free from the publisher. But, as the narrative unfolds, we learn that the people of Israel clearly thought God was presenting them with an agreement between equals, and although they liked, appreciated, and were very grateful for what God had done in rescuing them from Egypt, they honestly believed they were capable of holding up their side of the contract. He feels their suffering on a deep and personal level and is thus different from the likes of Pharaoh who presides over his kingdom in a removed and unfeeling manner.
The golden calf debacle demonstrates this. Because God is a God of life and blessing, God will do redemptive work, should those gifts ever be endangered or diminished. When questioned by Moses about who he is, God proclaims his name. This is the 2010 paperback edition. The opening of Exodus is thus a verbal link back to Genesis, interlocking the two narratives. When this happens, creation becomes what God intended it to be.
This section is not only filled with irony, it reveals the symbolic character of the narrative, whatever its historical grounding may be. Carroll, From Chaos to Covenant: Uses of Prophecy in the Book of Jeremiah London, UK: SCM Press, 1981 , 46, 217. The idea here is that God, although divine, is capable of receiving the world not as a human, but even more clearly. Most significantly, in this passage, Moses encourages Israel to circumcise the foreskins of their hearts Deut. It also serves to note the passage of a considerable period of time. Fretheim died late in the morning on November 16, 2020. Further, he comments on how we might honor both in the interpretive process.