School of management thought. Schools of Management thought 2022-10-10
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Schools of management thought are frameworks that provide a broad perspective on how organizations operate and how they can be managed effectively. These frameworks are based on the research and theories of management practitioners and academics, and they offer different approaches to managing organizations, including the roles and responsibilities of managers, the decision-making processes, and the overall goals of the organization.
One of the earliest schools of management thought is the classical school, which emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The classical school focused on increasing efficiency and productivity through the use of scientific methods and processes. This approach emphasized the importance of clear hierarchies and strict rules and procedures for managing organizations.
Another important school of management thought is the human relations school, which emerged in the 1930s and 1940s. This approach emphasizes the importance of considering the needs and motivations of individual employees in the management process. It suggests that managers should focus on creating a positive work environment and building strong relationships with employees in order to increase productivity and job satisfaction.
The contingency school of management thought, which emerged in the 1950s and 1960s, takes a different approach by recognizing that there is no one-size-fits-all solution to managing organizations. This approach suggests that the most effective management strategies depend on the specific circumstances of the organization, including its size, structure, and industry.
More recent schools of management thought include the systems approach and the decision-making approach. The systems approach focuses on the interconnectedness of different parts of an organization and how they work together to achieve the overall goals of the organization. The decision-making approach emphasizes the importance of effective decision-making processes in managing organizations.
In conclusion, schools of management thought provide a broad perspective on how organizations operate and can be managed effectively. These frameworks are based on the research and theories of management practitioners and academics and offer different approaches to managing organizations, including the roles and responsibilities of managers, the decision-making processes, and the overall goals of the organization.
Schools of Management Thought
The school has also benefited from the contributions of psychologists like Maslow, Argyris, Herzberg and McClelland. In decision-making, there are several complex variables which change under dynamic conditions. It tries to integrate the concepts, principles, and techniques that underlie the task of managing. The Mathematical School: If there is one discipline which has made inroads into practically all disciplines, it is mathematics. Reactive not Proactive — Contingency approach is basically reactive in nature. Harold Koontz when he says that management theory represents a jungle with confusion and entanglements of language and findings. His work was closely related to that of Adam Smith an economist , as he emphasised on work measurement, cost determination, bonus plans and profit sharing specialisation dividing the work into various jobs to increase managerial efficiency.
The Quantitative School 7. Typically, this is done through a case study approach or through the This school of thought believes that by analyzing the experience of successful managers or the mistakes of poor managers, we somehow can learn about applying the most effective The main 1. Charles Babbage 1792-1871 : He was a professor of mathematics at Cambridge University from 1828 to 1839. His work was, thus, related more to the top level of management. The focus was on mechanical side of the organisation and human side of the organisation was totally ignored. A study of group dynamics and inter-personal relationships. This approach has completely neglected the concept of the theoretical aspect of management.
Inventory modeling helps control inventories by mathematically establishing how and when to order a product. Some consider only the economic aspects of a decision, while others consider even non-economic aspects, mainly of a socio-psychological nature. It forces a practising manager to be constantly aware that one single element or phenomenon should not be treated without regard for its interacting consequences with other elements or phenomena. The major contribution of this school of thought is in the development of concepts and theories related to the formal organisation, that is, the organisation as formerly planned by the entrepreneurs or the top management. The main features of this school are — a Principles have universal application b The function of managers are the same in all type of organizations c Principles provide useful theory of management. To compensate for short supply of skilled labour at that time, this theory developed to increase efficiency of the workers. Analysis reveals that an activity is the result of many sub-activities, and in turn, these sub-activities of many further sub-activities.
Classification of Management Theories: 4 Schools of Thought
He advocated that workers should be treated as human beings and their values and beliefs should be respected. The main contributors of this school are Kenneth, Boulding, Johnson, C. This is a reaction to the Formalism School. Gilbreths also experimented with the design and use of the proper tools and equipment for optimizing work performance. It holds that experience is the only way a manager can develop and that it is the transfer of experience from the practitioner to the student that constitutes the most valid way of learning management. It covers not only the economic rationale of the decision but the psychological and sociological reactions of individuals and groups, the environments of decisions and decision-makers and also analysis of value consideration involved in decision-making.
Contingency thinking enlarges the area of freedom of operation of managers. It over-emphasises formal structure of the organisation and ignores informal needs of the workers. By studying the management situations, which are unique the manager gets on idea about what could be the good managerial decisions and what makes the decisions poor. He wrote nine books and over 70 papers on mathematics, science and philosophy. Managerial: It relates to functions performed by a manager. Finally, it will identify and discuss the theorist who best supports this Strategic Management : Strategic Planning and Wheelen 2011 noted that strategic management has been defined as the set of managerial decisions and actions for determining the long run future of the organization.
The Evolution of Management Science Management evolution started with civilization, and the evolution of management science is the entire concept involving several theories behind it. Modern management is based on the strong foundation laid down by the management thinkers from the past events. It considers organisation as a group of individuals and identifies the reasons why individuals join groups and factors that influence the group behaviour. It developed mathematical symbols to describe managerial problems. While the Decision Theory School of Thought accepts the basic assumptions that decisions are taken through rational choice from among different alternatives given different constrains, it does not confine itself to the process of decision-making. The major features of this school are: a A system consists of interdependent and interrelated parts known as subsystems.
He believed that higher wages for workers, participation in managerial decision-making and positive motivation can increase productivity. Management thought is regarded as an evolutionary concept. Today, the systems approach is undoubtedly the most widely accepted base for modern management. Churchman and others: The main features of this approach are: i. Essential features of process school are as follows: ADVERTISEMENTS: i. Wasted motions missed by the naked eyes could be identified and eliminated.
The Contingency Approach School of Management The contingency approach to management emphasizes the fact that management is a highly practice-oriented and action-packed discipline. Fayol, therefore, advocated sound management principles that enhance the ability of top managers to manage the organisation effectively. The main features of this school are: ADVERTISEMENTS: i. It is heavily sociological in flavour. Theoretical research can be combined with practical experiences. Its basic theme is that if application of a particular policy or strategy by a manager had successfully tackled a business problem or opportunity, then a similar problem or situation facing any manager could also be tackled by applying the same policy or strategy.
(PDF) Schools of Management Thought SCHOOLS OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHT Structure
Masses or large batches 3. He suggested a scientific approach to management also called scientific management theory. The aim is to increase production at the shop level. The different factors involved in management can be quantified and expressed in the form of models, i. In fact, the analysis of this school includes the behaviour of the persons or organisational groups making the decision. He introduced rational-legal authority system rather than charismatic and traditional authority to manage business organisations.