Approaches to literary criticism. 2. Finding a Literary Criticism Approach 2022-10-25
Approaches to literary criticism Rating:
Approaches to literary criticism involve various methods and frameworks used to interpret, analyze, and evaluate works of literature. Literary criticism can be divided into several categories, including formalist, historical, cultural, psychological, and others.
Formalist criticism is an approach that focuses on the form and structure of a literary work, such as its language, imagery, and symbols. Formalist critics examine how these elements contribute to the overall meaning and aesthetic value of the work. This approach is often associated with the New Criticism movement, which emerged in the mid-20th century and emphasized close reading and interpretation of literary texts.
Historical criticism, also known as contextual criticism, involves the analysis of a literary work within its historical and cultural context. This approach seeks to understand how the work reflects the values, beliefs, and experiences of the time and place in which it was written. Historical critics may consider the social, political, and economic conditions of the time, as well as the author's personal history and cultural background.
Cultural criticism is an approach that examines the ways in which literature reflects and shapes the culture in which it is produced. This approach is concerned with the social and political implications of literature, as well as the ways in which it reflects and influences cultural values and beliefs. Cultural critics may consider the ways in which literature reflects and challenges dominant cultural narratives, as well as the ways in which it engages with issues of power, identity, and representation.
Psychological criticism is an approach that focuses on the psychological motivations and conflicts of the characters in a literary work. This approach is influenced by the theories of psychologists such as Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung, and seeks to understand the unconscious desires and fears that shape the characters' actions and relationships. Psychological critics may also examine the ways in which the work reflects the psychological experiences and struggles of the author.
Other approaches to literary criticism include feminist criticism, which examines the representation and treatment of women in literature, and Marxist criticism, which focuses on the economic and class-based power dynamics in literature.
In conclusion, there are many different approaches to literary criticism, each of which offers a unique perspective on the interpretation and analysis of literary works. These approaches can be used independently or in combination to gain a deeper understanding of the meaning and significance of literature.
2. Finding a Literary Criticism Approach
The reader creates the meaning. Because meaning is determinant, all other considerations are irrelevant. Formalistic critics spend much time analyzing irony, paradox, imagery, and metaphor. They look either at the psychological motivations of the characters or of the authors themselves, although the former is generally considered a more respectable approach. Finally, it includes a search for a feminine theory or approach to texts.
They may also refer to Freud's psychology of child development, which includes the oral stage, the anal stage, and the genital stage. This classless society could only come about as a result of a revolution that would overthrow the capitalist domination of the economy. Their critics identify these archetypal patterns and discuss how they function in the works. Freudian critics occasionally discern the presence of an Oedipus complex a boy's unconscious rivalry with his father for the love of his mother in the male characters of certain works, such as Hamlet. Hence, we use a specific approach to read, analyze, evaluate, interpret and judge a specific literary piece, and go on to produce a literary analysis essay on that same literary analysis. This can also be labelled as Mythological and Symbolic criticisms.
Approaches to Literary Criticism Formalist criticism is placed at the center because it deals primarily with the text and not with any of the outside considerations such as author, the real world, audience, or other literature. Australia: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Dancing, riding, and flying are associated with sexual pleasure. Psychological critics are generally concerned with his concept of the process of individuation the process of discovering what makes one different form everyone else. Ninety essays by leading critics and scholars, the volume covers both traditional topics such as literature and history, poetry, drama and the novel, and also newer topics such as the production and reception of literature. The approach may be evaluative i. They tend to see concave images, such as ponds, flowers, cups, and caves as female symbols; whereas objects that are longer than they are wide are usually seen as phallic symbols.
Approaches to Literary Criticism will detail the various approaches to literar
One may compare a piece of work to another of the same author, same literary movement or same historical background. Jungian Approach: - Jung is also an influential force in myth archetypal criticism. Elaine Showalter's Theory: In A Literature of Their Own, Elaine Showalter argued that literary subcultures all go through three major phases of development. It lies at the opposite end of the spectrum from formalistic criticism. It is important to remember there are numerous approaches out there, and you do not have to limit yourself to approaches presented in this guide. Naturally, critics of the Marxist school differ in breadth and sympathy the way other critics do. To critique a piece of work, one must read first the text.
No less than the correspondence, remembered conversations, choice of reading matter, the poem is analyzed for relevance to its author. Feminists often argue that male fears are portrayed through female characters. Virtually all critical approaches must begin here. Mimetic criticism seeks to see how well a work accords with the real world. They are also interested in the work's setting, characters, symbols, and point of view.
They believe it is necessary to know about the author and the political, economical, and sociological context of his times in order to truly understand his works. In this approach, the reader creates meaning, not the author or the work. There the similarity ends, because their aims are in fact opposite. Once the work is published, the author is no longer relevant. Now in its fifth edition, it remains the most comprehensive and accessible work of its kind, and is invaluable for students, teachers and general readers alike.
Formalistic critics presumably do not view works through the lens of feminism, psychology, mythology, or any other such standpoint, and they are not interested in the work's affect on the reader. Evidence is drawn from sociology and anthropology, and the approach attempts to place the work in larger context rather than assess its quality. Theory into Practice: An Intro to Literary Criticism. Literature has a humanizing or civilizing mission, and the critic values work which furthers that end: promotes tolerance, social justice, sensitivity to individual wishes and talents, etc. In the historical view, it is important to understand the author and his world in order to understand his intent and to make sense of his work.
It denies the possibility that works are universal i. It can assert several, contradictory interpretations of one text. Water is usually associated with birth, the female principle, the maternal, the womb, and the death wish. Writing in the nineteenth century, Marx criticized the exploitation of the working classes, or proletariat, by the capitalist classes who owned the mines, factories, and other resources of national economies. New Haven: Yale University Press. In reader response criticism, the text itself has no meaning until it is read by a reader.
They believe that a piece of writing does not have one meaning and the meaning itself is dependent on the reader. . They may argue that gender determines everything, or just the opposite: that all gender differences are imposed by society, and gender determines nothing. Reader-response criticism is concerned with how the work is viewed by the audience. Generally, it criticizes the notion of woman as a construct through literature.