Kanem-Bornu was a medieval empire that existed in present-day Chad and Nigeria. It was founded in the 9th century by the Kanembu people, who established a capital at Njimi and began to build a powerful state. The empire reached its peak in the 13th and 14th centuries, when it controlled a vast territory that stretched from the central Sahara to the western Sudan.
One of the most notable features of Kanem-Bornu was its political structure. The empire was ruled by a monarch known as the mai, who held absolute power and was advised by a council of nobles. The mai was assisted in his duties by a number of officials, including a chief judge, a treasurer, and a number of military leaders.
Kanem-Bornu was a Muslim state, and Islam played a significant role in the empire's culture and society. The mai and other high-ranking officials were all Muslims, and the empire had a number of important Islamic institutions, such as mosques, madrasas (Islamic schools), and Sufi orders. The Kanem-Bornu people were also known for their strong devotion to their faith, and many of them made pilgrimages to Mecca and other holy sites.
Kanem-Bornu was a major economic power in its time. The empire was home to a number of important trade routes, and it was known for its extensive trade network. The empire was also an important producer of a number of goods, including gold, salt, and slaves.
Despite its successes, Kanem-Bornu faced a number of challenges throughout its history. The empire was frequently beset by internal conflicts, as various factions struggled for power and influence. In addition, the empire faced external threats from neighboring states, such as the Kingdom of Ghana and the Kingdom of Mali.
Despite these challenges, Kanem-Bornu managed to survive for several centuries, and it left a lasting legacy in the region. Today, the people of Chad and Nigeria remember the empire as a symbol of their cultural and historical identity.
Empire of Kanem
I anonymously proposed a revised version in this sense, and updated the bibliography, but these changes have been erased. Kanem And Bornu An early trans-Saharan route connected Tripoli on the Mediterranean with Lake Chad. Borno proved to be important for the relocated Kanem Empire, as the lands here were more fertile than in Kanem. In western Sudan the opening of new sources of gold extended trade routes further south, which encouraged the development of chiefdoms and the spread of Islam. Interestingly, the historian Dr Fagan has argued that although the Mais were Muslim and devoted to Islam, the political structure of the Kingdom retained some of the pre-Islamic elements. As a devout Muslim, he not only went on his pilgrimage to Mecca in 1571 AD, but also brought back with him scholars from the Middle-East and Northern Africa. It was first known as the Kanem Empire 700 AD — 1617 AD and later came to be known as the Kanem-Bornu Empire 1617 — 1893 AD.
They controlled 12 vassal states subordinate states that were in addition to their own lands. Le Dīwān des sultans du Kanem-Bornu. He also constructed the city of Ngazargamu near the River Yobe, which subsequently became the capital of the Kanem Empire in Bornu. Retrieved 23 July 2022. Forego a bottle of soda and donate its cost to us for the information you just learned, and feel good about helping to make it available to everyone. Mamluk Cairo, a Crossroads for Embassies: Studies on Diplomacy and Diplomatics.
Du lac Tchad à la Mecque: Le sultanat du Borno et son monde xvie - xviie siècle. Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History. A warrior of Kanem named Muhammad al-Kanami soon defeated the Fulani. He, like Mai Dunama II also constructed a hostel in Mecca for the Muslims of Kanem to stay at when they went on their pilgrimage to Mecca. I am not saying your content is not good.
The Kanembu were led by the Duguwa dynasty and they eventually dominated the Sao civilisation; war continued up to the late 16 th century. Mai Idris occupied the northern parts of the land of the Kotoko as well as Mandara and the region of Lake Fitri. The History of Islam in Africa. Shortly thereafter, the rulers of Bagirmi became Islamized. Finally, around 1396 the Bulala invaders forced the once strong Sayfawa dynasty to abandon Njimi and move to Bornu on the western edge of Lake Chad. I have overlaid the Kanem and the Kanem-Bornu empires on the same map to give a better idea.
The Girgam has provided a written historical record of the Empire, which includes the names of Kings and Queens, the length of their reigns and the major events within the Empire. A time of reconsolidation occurred as the monarchy was put back in order. By the early 19th century, the declining empire could not sustain the advance from the fulani warriors of To learn more about the Kanem-Bornu empire, check out: 10,000 m2… today it has sadly shrunk down to 1,300 m2, and is still shrinking! Group of Kanem-Bu warriors in the 1800s By the end of the 14th century, internal struggles and external attacks had torn Kanem apart. Is it difficult to set up your own blog? This is the origin of the name Kanem-Bornu. The rulers of Bornu in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were pious and learned. The Kanuri of Bornu. Kanem Bornu's foreign policy was significantly shaped by a need to control the important trading routes and thus tax the movement of goods.
The division seems artificial is it based on modern nationalisms? The Saifwa dynasty was established, a dynasty which ruled for 771 years—the longest known reign in history. Under this dynasty, the Empire grew extremely wealthy. His descendents ruled what remained of Kanem and suffered many military setbacks from Wadai and Baguirmi. The empire became the most powerful in Africa. An example of one such element is that 2 women held the highest positions in the Kingdom — the Queen Mother and the Queen sister both of whom had their own court and officers. The last flame was extinguished by the French when they conquered Kanem-Bornu in the beginning of the twentieth century.
The state religion was Islam but the monarchy still practiced a very typically African divine kingship. Chad: A Country Study. Thus began the second kingdom, Kanem became Kanem-Bornu. It stretched from the Hausa city states in the West to the Nile valley in the East. There were walled cities that belonged to the Sao civilisation.
There was much dissatisfaction in the eighteenth century. The seventeenth century was the second, and last, era of apogee in the history of Kanem Bornu. Thank you for visiting the blog, and please refer others… we have to share and spread the knowledge around to as many as possible. I can guess the reasoning, but is there a link to the debate which established consensus? Like Like Hello there! Retrieved 16 May 2019. Kanem-Borno: 1,000 Years of Splendor. This precipitated the great exodus of Kanem history.
Paris: Publication de la Sorbonne. By 1497, Mai Ali Ghaji had developed the Empire in Bonru to such a great extent, that he had enough resources to retake the city of Njimi from the Bulala. Good day The current article is certainly better than the one pasted above, but is inaccurate with regard to the 19th c. In the meantime, the Kanem monarchy was experiencing a crisis of legitimacy. The Founding of Kanem by Assyrian Refugees ca.
It stretched from the Fezzan in modern day Libya all the way to Bornu in the south of lake Chad Nigeria. THE KANEM-BORNU EMPIRE The Kanem-Bornu Empire was officially known as the Kanem-Bornu Empire by 1617 AD. This mining territory was eventually lost to these desert nomads. Dating and chronology in the lake Chad basin. Zaria: Northern Nigerian Publishing.