# Applications of pigeonhole principle with example. Applications Of The Pigeonhole Principle Mathematics Essay 2022-10-20

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The pigeonhole principle, also known as the "boxes and pigeons" principle, is a simple but powerful concept in mathematics that states that if there are more objects than available spaces (or "pigeonholes"), then at least one space must contain more than one object. This principle has many applications in various fields, including computer science, economics, and even daily life.

One of the most common applications of the pigeonhole principle is in computer science, specifically in the field of data compression. In data compression, the goal is to represent a large amount of data using a smaller number of bits. One way to do this is by using a technique called "lossless compression," where the original data can be recovered exactly from the compressed version. The pigeonhole principle can be used to prove that certain lossless compression schemes are optimal, meaning that no other scheme can compress the data more efficiently. For example, suppose we have a set of data consisting of the letters A, B, C, and D. If we want to represent this data using only 2 bits per letter, we can use the pigeonhole principle to prove that at least one of the letters must be represented by two different combinations of 2 bits. This means that the data cannot be losslessly compressed using 2 bits per letter, and we must use a different method or a higher number of bits to achieve optimal compression.

Another application of the pigeonhole principle is in economics, specifically in the study of market equilibrium. Market equilibrium occurs when the quantity of a good or service that is being supplied is equal to the quantity that is being demanded. The pigeonhole principle can be used to prove that under certain conditions, market equilibrium is always possible. For example, suppose we have a market for a certain type of good, and there are three sellers who each have a certain number of units of the good to sell. The pigeonhole principle states that if the sellers have a total of more than three units of the good, then at least one of them must have more than one unit to sell. This means that there must be at least one buyer who is willing to purchase more than one unit of the good, which is necessary for the market to reach equilibrium.

In daily life, the pigeonhole principle can also be used to solve practical problems. For example, suppose you have a group of friends who are going on a road trip, and you need to decide which car to take. You have three cars to choose from, each with a different number of seats. The pigeonhole principle states that if you have more friends than the total number of seats in the three cars, then at least one of the cars must have more than one person in it. This can help you decide which car to take, and also serve as a reminder to carpool to save space and reduce environmental impact.

In conclusion, the pigeonhole principle is a simple but powerful concept that has many applications in various fields, including computer science, economics, and daily life. Its versatility and simplicity make it a valuable tool for solving a wide range of problems.

## (PDF) Pigeonhole Principle: Real Life Applications and Mathematical Investigation

Next, we will like to proceed to a more creative aspect of the application of Pigeonhole Principle by showing how it can be used to design interesting games: 7. If senator A hates senator B, then senator B does 'not' necessarily hate senator A. I get so many emails that I may not reply, but I save all suggestions. Taking into consideration the scenario stated earlier concerning pigeons required to enter pigeonholes, consider the average. Otherwise, each of the small squares will contain 2 or less points which will then mean that the total number of points will be less than 50 , which is a contradiction to the fact that we have 51 points in the first case! Hence by the Pigeonhole Principle, two members of the sequence, say a and b, are associated with the same ordered pair s, t. In such a case, the circle is this time divided into five sectors and all else follows. Can we prove that 3 of these points can be covered by a circle of radius units? Each of the n partygoers can be categorized as one of these n-1 values, and hence two of the partygoers must have the same value-that is, the same number of friends-by the pigeonhole principle.

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## proofs

First we will see what happens if we apply above formula directly. The participant does not show the arrangement of these cards to the magician, but does show them to the magicians accomplice. There are some examples in the Wikipedia page for the Thanks! Prove that there are consecutive days during which the student sits exactly 21 practice exams. In fact, we can view the problem as there are 12 pigeonholes months of the year with 13 pigeons the 13 persons. Case 1: everyone has at least one friend If everyone has at least one friend, then each person has between 1 to nÃ‚Â­-1 friends. A more advanced version of the principle will be the following: If mn + 1 pigeons are placed in n pigeonholes, then there will be at least one pigeonhole with m + 1 or more pigeons in it.

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## Mathematics

Introduction We begin our discussion with a common daily embarrassing moment. Since the greatest distance between two points lying in a sector is 10 units, the statement is proven to be true in any case. Ã‚ Application of this theorem is more important, so let us see how we apply this theorem in problem solving. Two or more people reading this blog will have the same birthday. Turkeys weigh roughly 15 pounds, with the 5. There are 366 possible birthdays including February 29 in a leap year and this blog has many more than 367 readers.

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## big list

The answer is yes, but there is one catch. There are five other points it could possibly connect to. Here is an example of how the trick can be performed: Example Suppose the participant arranges the 10 cards in the following manner value faced down from left to right : 3, 5, 8, 10, 1, 7, 4, 2, 6, 9. Encompassing problems Consider the following problem: 51 points are placed, in a random way, into a square of side 1 unit. Because friend is symmetric, the highest value anyone else could have is n â€” 2, that is, they would be friends with everyone except the singleton. Imagine a party has n people.

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## 16 fun applications of the pigeonhole principle

The first card that the accomplice shows to the magician is one of these two cards. The human head can contain up to several hundred thousand hairs, with a maximum of about 500,000. If GG is a complete graph KnKn, the numbers f Kn,H f Kn,H and rb Kn,H rb Kn,H are called anti-Ramsey numbers and rainbow numbers, respectively. These two points are connected, plus they are both connected to the original point. Again, we identify our pigeonholes by dividing the hexagon into six equilateral triangles as shown below.

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## Discrete Mathematics

This brings us down to only n-1 different numbers of possible handshakes for the group and n people. No matter how the graph is drawn, we want to show there is a set of three points that are all connected or a set of three points that has no connecting edges. In such questions, a given number of darts are thrown onto a dartboard, the general shape and size of which are known. These are the numbers that remain hidden in our trick. The other card of the same suit is never shown â€” it is the mystery card, the card which the magician must discover. Otherwise ai followed by the longest increasing subsequence starting at a j would be an increasing subsequence of length s j + 1 starting at a i. The most common case is when you are trying to argue that there exist two objects or mathematical constructs that share some property.

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## Applications Of The Pigeonhole Principle Mathematics Essay

As we know that the distance from the centre of the triangle to each vertex is two-third of the altitude of this triangle, that is, units, we can see that it is definitely possible to find two darts which are units apart within the equilateral triangle! Otherwise, that means none of these three points are connected and hence they are mutual strangers. Solution: Here in this we cannot blindly apply pigeon principle. Consider a sequence of any 7 distinct real numbers. It is natural to ask: what if we have, say, 4n+1 objects and 4 boxes? These four triangles may now be considered as boxes and the five points as objects. Graduate level applications would be fine as well, but I am mostly interested in examples that I can use in my undergrad classes. In a group of six people, there will always be three people that are mutual friends or mutual strangers.

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## soft question

Copy to Clipboard Reference Copied to Clipboard. The difference of these two numbers is thus divisible by 11! Consider any single point. These two points are not connected, plus they are both not connected to the original point. The pigeonhole principle is powerful enough to prove truths that are far from obvious. Did you know that at every instant, there is a spot in the world where no wind is blowing? Example 1: Seven darts are thrown onto a circular dartboard of radius 10 units. However, take note that this is not always true anymore with only five darts or less. A proof due to Seidenberg uses the pigeonhole principle.

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## CC

Let us start by considering a situation where we have 10 boxes and 11 objects to be placed in them. Pigeonhole Problem Therefore, the local college will need 20 different rooms to accommodate the different classes and periods. Every number can be paired with another to sum to nine. Solution: Four persons can be arranged in a line in 4! The idea is intuitive. This shows that 0 is a limit point of {}. For instance, there are 3 pigeonholes around. A notable problem in mathematical analysis is, for a fixed irrational number a, to show that the set {: n is an integer} of fractional parts is dense in.

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## Pigeonhole Principle (Defined w/ 11 Step

As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. Pigeonhole Principle and numerical property We can also apply the Pigeonhole Principle in determining useful numerical properties. Basically, he can arrange the other three cards in 3! So, in whichever way we place these pigeons, at least one hole will have more than one pigeon in it. The same proof can be replicated for the pairwise sums, but the differences give a better constant. Dartboard applications Another common type of problem requiring the pigeonhole principle to solve are those which involve the dartboard. Could you suggest some more? The Pigeonhole Principle sounds trivial but its uses are deceiving astonishing! As with most questions involving the pigeonhole principle, the hardest part is to identify the pigeons and pigeonholes. Solution: 30 people can be assigned to 7 days of the week.

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