The BCG (Boston Consulting Group) matrix is a tool used by companies to evaluate their business units or product lines based on two dimensions: relative market share and market growth. The matrix divides the business units or product lines into four categories: stars, cash cows, dogs, and question marks.
Stars are business units or product lines that have a high market share in a growing market. These units or lines generate a lot of cash and are considered the main growth drivers of the company.
Cash cows are business units or product lines that have a high market share in a mature market. These units or lines generate a lot of cash, but they do not contribute to the growth of the company.
Dogs are business units or product lines that have a low market share in a mature market. These units or lines do not generate much cash and do not contribute to the growth of the company.
Question marks are business units or product lines that have a low market share in a growing market. These units or lines may have potential for growth, but they require a lot of investment to catch up with the competition.
Now, let's apply the BCG matrix to Reliance, a diversified conglomerate company in India.
Reliance has several business units and product lines, including telecommunications, retail, petrochemicals, and energy.
The telecommunications unit, Jio, can be considered a star. Jio has a high market share in the growing telecommunications market in India and has been a major growth driver for Reliance.
The retail unit, Reliance Retail, can be considered a cash cow. Reliance Retail has a high market share in the mature retail market in India and generates a lot of cash, but it does not contribute much to the overall growth of the company.
It is difficult to classify the petrochemicals and energy units as either dogs or question marks because these industries are subject to fluctuations in demand and prices. However, the petrochemicals unit may be considered a cash cow due to its high market share and cash generation, while the energy unit may be considered a question mark due to its low market share and potential for growth.
Overall, the BCG matrix can help Reliance identify its growth drivers and allocate resources accordingly. It can also help the company make strategic decisions about which business units or product lines to invest in and which ones to divest.
Lab 9: Conduction Velocity of Nerves
Pain can be mild or severe. Packages specially designed for EMG analysis can also be obtained. The novel feature of the strategy proposed by Pottmann et al. Then, by dividing the distance between the elektrodes by the latency i. During the test, the nerve is stimulated, usually with surface electrode patches attached to the skin. .
Nerve Depolarization Occurs Under The Cathode So Calculation Of Conduction Velocity Depends On. The hammer that you will use has been modified so that when it hits the tendon, the hammer closes a circuit and generates a small signal. Recordings of individual MUAPs, using needle electrodes, can also assist in the diagnosis of various myopathies, such as mytonia, where characteristic repetitive discharges occur within the muscle. If you do not see a response and you are using a stimulus of more than 1V, ask for assistance. The axon is the part of the neuron that conducts impulses; the axon is usually a long outgrowth, or process, that carries impulses away from the cell body of a neuron toward target cells.
Nerve Conduction Velocity Test — Montgomery Family Medicine
For details see Grinvald et al. Encyclopedia of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, 337—341. Depending on the area being tested, you may be asked to either lie down or sit upright. Too much cream- may cause short circuit because current will only pass through electrode cream instead of skin sweaty palms 3. C, LabChart 8 Setup files. Special steps will need to be taken before the test if you have one of these devices. The PowerLab set up is slightly different for the Earthworm giant axon recording, but the theory is similar.
Conduction Velocity: Difference and Absolute Methods
Thus, the multichannel estimator averages all possible combinations of pairwise cross-correlation functions and then finds the location of the maximum of the averaged function —this location is the ML estimate of θ. These nerves help you control your muscles and experience the senses. Sciatica nerve problems The sciatic nerve extends from the lower back and down both sides of the hips, buttocks, legs, and feet. The nerve conduction velocity speed is then calculated by measuring the distance between electrodes and the time it takes for electrical impulses to travel between electrodes. In axonal neuropathies, the primary abnormality will be the loss of SNAP and CMAP amplitudes with proximal or distal testing.
Try not to stretch the nerve and avoid touching the nerve with anything metal to avoid damaging the nerve. It is possible to have normal results even if a person has nerve damage. Scope will display one sweep. Read the time difference in the upper part of the Scope window. Calculate the Average conduction velocity for each using the class data. Responses that are involved with the reflex arc can also be assessed using a combination of evoked response and biopotential measurement.
Nerve Conduction Velocity: Overview, Testing, and Results
Reasons for the procedures EMG is often used along with nerve conduction velocity NCV to differentiate a muscle disorder from a nerve disorder. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier: 2005. These observations imply a potential correlation between signals from different recording channels as well as an increase in conduction velocity. During the test, a nerve is directly stimulated with an electrical current to see how it reacts. For example, if your test is to evaluate ulnar neuropathy, you can wear a shirt that can be rolled up to expose your arms. According to Sciatic nerve pain and herniated disks often coincide because when disks in the lower spine and back slip out of place, they put pressure on the nerves around the disk. Great diameter, fastest velocity A beta -- touch, pressure A y --- motor to muscle spindle A gamma -- pain cold touch B -- preganglionic, autonomic c dorsal root -- pain, temperature, some mechanoreceptors C sympathetic -- postganglionic, sympathetic smallest diameter, slowest velocity??? Repeat until you have 3 representative EMGs.
As stronger voltages stimulate additional axons, the compound action potential will grow in amplitude. While these are the most common locations for symptoms, they can also occur elsewhere. The action potentials, recorded from the outside of the nerve extracellularly is known as a compound action potential, and represents the sum of the action potentials fired by individual neurons. The spectrum also shows a spike at 50 Hz due to mains power interference. In the Earthworm, you will be recording from giant axons. A common indicator of volume conduction is a sudden change in waveform morphology from its traditional pattern after the stimulus intensity has been increased.
Attach the cables to the correct electrodes: green for ground on the ankle bone and black and white to the calf muscle. Read more Navigate Down The myoelectrical signal associated with the contraction of skeletal muscle can be recorded by placing electrodes either on the skin surface over the muscle or by inserting a needle or fine wire electrode into the body of the muscle. Is the difference significant at the 0. APharmacokinetic Changes in the Elderly As the populations of Western countries age, the changes which occur with additional years of life have received more attention. The Electromyogram EMG : is a recording of a muscle contraction that can be taken from the skin above a muscle. An EMG can detect whether a muscle is responding properly to nerve signals, which can help determine whether a person has a nerve disease or a muscle condition. Results: Use data from the whole class to compare the mean conduction velocities of the three nerves examined today.