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Emotional response theory is a psychological theory that explains how individuals experience and express emotions. The theory suggests that emotions are a result of physiological arousal and cognitive interpretation of stimuli. According to this theory, an individual's emotional response is influenced by their personal experiences, cultural background, and individual differences.
According to the James-Lange theory of emotion, physiological arousal occurs first, followed by the interpretation of the arousal, which leads to the experience of emotion. For example, if an individual sees a venomous snake, their body might respond with an increase in heart rate, sweaty palms, and heightened alertness. If the individual interprets this arousal as fear, then they will experience the emotion of fear.
Another theory, the Cannon-Bard theory, suggests that physiological arousal and the experience of emotion occur simultaneously. According to this theory, the thalamus, a structure in the brain, sends signals to both the emotional centers of the brain and the autonomic nervous system, which controls physiological arousal. This simultaneous experience of arousal and emotion allows individuals to react more quickly to stimuli.
The two-factor theory, proposed by Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer, combines elements of both the James-Lange and Cannon-Bard theories. This theory suggests that physiological arousal and cognitive interpretation both play a role in emotion, but the cognitive interpretation is more important in determining the specific emotion that is experienced. For example, if an individual experiences physiological arousal, they might interpret it as fear if they are in a scary situation, or as excitement if they are in a pleasurable situation.
Cultural and individual differences also play a role in emotional response. Different cultures may have different ways of expressing and interpreting emotions, and individuals may have their own unique ways of experiencing and expressing emotions. For example, some cultures may view certain emotions as more or less acceptable to express, while others may have different expectations for emotional expression. Individual differences, such as personality and emotional intelligence, can also influence an individual's emotional response.
In conclusion, emotional response theory suggests that emotions are a result of both physiological arousal and cognitive interpretation. Cultural and individual differences also play a role in how emotions are experienced and expressed. Understanding the various factors that influence emotional response can help individuals better understand their own emotions and the emotions of others.
Major Motivational and Emotional Response Theories
This explanation allows Robinson to maintain the idea that emotions are non-cognitive while acknowledging that humans can have emotions in response to complex events. Nonetheless, the central claim made in these theories is that the social influence is so significant that emotions are best understood from this perspective. Culture and the categorization of emotions. But unlike the judgment theories, the cognitive appraisal theories do not rely on the resources of folk psychology beliefs, judgments, and so forth. Sigmund Freud For Freud, the experiences that we have during early childhood can determine our adult personality.
He claims that when faced with certain stimuli, our body reacts first and then we feel an emotion. For this component, an outcome of uncertainty contributes to hope instead of joy or relief, which both involve an appraisal that the event is certain that is, the outcome of the event has been determined. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. These seven basic emotions can be distinguished by local electrical stimulation. The last issue that needs to be addressed concerns the bodily response. Cannon also suggested that emotional responses occur much too quickly to be simply products of physical states.
Your emotional reaction depends upon how you interpret those physical reactions. The following are some of the features that distinguish emotion from moods. You cognitively label this feeling "nervous. A second response is to be more specific about the nature of the judgment itself. The third category of theories contains those that attempt to describe the emotion process itself. After research, Panksepp found that there are seven basic emotions in human and animal coexistence. Notice also that the different emotions all use the same appraisal components, and many emotions take the same values for several of the components.
Both the endocrine system and the sympathetic nervous system get activated during the fight or flight mode, and the arousal of both these systems helps to tackle the perceived threat. Lazarus believed that cognitive appraisals determine emotional and physiological responses. People in the United States are more likely to express negative emotions both alone and in the presence of others, while people in Japan are more likely to do so while alone. The passions: Emotions and the meaning of life 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press. The possibility that the event can be appraised as having an unknown probability was added by Roseman in order to account for surprise, which is often considered a basic emotion for example, Izard, 1977; Ekman, 1992.
The Journal of Philosophy, 92, 53—74. Ekman says that the automatic appraisal mechanism is one kind of appraisal mechanism, but he also believes that cognitive appraisals are sometimes utilized. Emotions can be understood as either states or as processes. Lust: This system coordinates sexual behavior and feeling. He believes that human emotion involves physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience. Describing the automatic appraisal mechanism, Ekman says: There must be an appraiser mechanism which selectively attends to those stimuli external or internal which are the occasion for activating the affect programme … Since the interval between stimulus and emotional response is sometimes extraordinarily short, the appraisal mechanism must be capable of operating with great speed. Similar to the Cannon-Bard theory, the Schachter-Singer theory also suggests that similar physiological responses can produce different emotions.
Understanding Emotional Response Theory: The Role of Instructor Power and Justice Messages: Communication Quarterly: Vol 60, No 2
New York: Oxford University Press. One of the earliest of these cognitive theories was one proposed by Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer,Â known as the two-factor theory of emotion. New York: Oxford University Press. Both developments — cognitive and emotional — serve to adapt to the environment. Ethology and Sociobiology, 11, 375—424. New York: Psychology Press.
Â Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. In other words, your nervous system produces physical reactions to the things happening around you. The first four emotion systems appear shortly after birth in mammals: 1. Yelling at the umpire would have been another role the player could have adopted. They believed that our body responds first and then we interpret that response in an emotion. C: American Ethnological Society.
Later, it was found that the amygdala, phrenic region, and dome were also included in the loop, so the term Papez loop was proposed. The flight or fight response is also known as an acute stress response or hyperarousal; it is an automatical physiological response survival instinct to the perceived threat that allows people to rapidly act on the threat. An alternative view is that the emotion process is always a non-cognitive one. Likewise, frowning can put you in a bad mood. The Lazarus theory of emotion says that humans respond to experiences cognitively first, emotionally second, and physically last. In the other version of the study designed to induce feelings of anger , the participant and confederate were asked to fill out questionnaires, which contained increasingly personal questions. Emotional response can be caused by cognitive activation.
New York: Oxford University Press. A Word From Verywell Most of us experience a wide variety of emotions. Both James and Lange did present some clinical findings to support their theory. According to the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion, humans feel emotions and experience physiological reactions sweating, trembling, muscle tension, etc. Horan and Matthew M. A number of anthropological studies have found discrepancies among the emotion words used in different languages.
What Are Emotions? Types of Emotions in Psychology
Social theories explain emotions as the products of cultures and societies. On a more general level, however, there are similarities among the elicitors for each emotion. A constructivist view of emotion. So for instance, the situational state for both joy and relief is motive-consistent. In Lazarus's theory of emotion, there are four components in the cycle of emotion. Any request to remove copyrighted material will be honored, provided proof of ownership is rendered.