The selfish gene synopsis. Itsekäs geeni 2022-10-28
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The Selfish Gene is a 1976 book by Richard Dawkins that introduced the concept of the selfish gene as a way to understand evolution. The central premise of the book is that genes are the fundamental unit of natural selection, and that they are primarily motivated by self-interest.
Dawkins argues that genes are the driving force behind the behavior of living organisms, and that they are constantly striving to replicate themselves in order to ensure their own survival. This means that genes are not necessarily concerned with the welfare of the organism they are a part of, but rather with their own replication.
One of the key ideas in The Selfish Gene is the concept of kin selection, which is the idea that genes can increase their own fitness by promoting the survival and reproduction of closely related individuals. This can lead to behaviors that seem altruistic or selfless, but are actually driven by the selfish interests of the genes involved.
Another important concept in the book is the idea of the evolutionarily stable strategy, which is a strategy that will persist over time because it is more successful at replicating itself than any other strategy. This can be seen in the evolution of predator and prey species, where each evolves adaptations that allow them to better survive and reproduce.
The Selfish Gene has had a significant impact on the field of evolutionary biology and has helped to shape our understanding of how evolution works. It has also inspired a wide range of popular science writing, including Dawkins' own follow-up book, The Extended Phenotype.
Overall, The Selfish Gene is a thought-provoking and influential work that has helped to change the way we think about evolution and the role of genes in shaping the natural world.
The Selfish Gene Plot Summary
Dawkins argues qualitatively that the lottery for the gene is based upon a very long and broad record of events, and group advantages are usually too specific, too brief, and too fortuitous to change the gene lottery. Richard Dawkins—the author of The Selfish Gene—is the sole voice of its story. Worth noting in this situation is that the female will naturally be more invested in the offspring. Cuts Out the Fluff Ever feel a book rambles on, giving anecdotes that aren't useful? Retrieved 5 April 2016. . REVEALED: THE SECRET OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR, read the banner headline.
I The Meme Machine Analysis In the book, Dawkins promotes the view of competition amongst all genes. Group Altruism and the Evolution of Culture Many types of animals move, or even live, together in groups. Dawkins waited until the very last sentence of The Selfish Gene to reassure us that, in fact, we are welcome to chuck all those genes out the window: "We alone on earth can rebel against the tyranny of the selfish gene replicators. Overcrowding can sometimes reduce birth rates in population, so Dawkins agrees breeding females sometimes decide to have fewer children. Dawkins sees no contradiction here in what the genes do in the parent or the child body because "genes are selected.
Since this results in both external and internal genetic changes over time, Dawkins thinks it makes perfect sense to consider the gene the evolving entity. Genes are called selfish for a simple reason — they manipulate our behavior to make sure they will survive. Memes: The New Replicators According to Dawkins, "Cultural transmission is analogous to genetic transmission in that, although basically conservative, it can give rise a form of evolution. To a much lesser extent, they are also arranged differently between different people except for identical twins. The molecules that make the most accurate copies of themselves and which last the longest outnumber the others.
An evolutionarily stable strategy or state is achieved when the same ratio of replicators persists in the gene pool from generation to generation. . Survival machines have one function: to keep genes in the gene pool. . Cuckoos try to trick the songbirds into hatching their eggs by laying them in.
For instance, if a bird simply flew away upon spotting a predator, it would lose the advantages of living in a flock. For example, if there were a gene for purple hair, you might expect one purple-haired person to act altruistically toward another. Each oarsman is selfish: he wants to win the race. Symbiotic relationships are a form of reciprocal altruism. Evolutionary biologist Genesmanship Dawkins reminds the reader that a selfish gene is not "a single physical bit of DNA" but rather the sum total of all its replicas. Experiments conducted over many years by social psychologists have revealed how swiftly and decisively people divide into groups, and then discriminate in favor of the one to which they belong. The Core Idea: Though the book is called The Selfish Gene, the text unfolds something else — that actually altruism should be and in most cases is the driving behavior of all living creatures.
This means that organisms exist because they keep genes alive, as copies of themselves, from generation to generation. Almost all research in inclusive-fitness theory has been the opposite: hypothesize the key roles of kinship and kin selection, then look for evidence to test that hypothesis. . If there is a human moral to be drawn, it is that we must teach our children altruism, for we cannot expect it to be part of their biological nature. Replicating is just what genes do.
. He calls ideas memes and indicates that many ideas tend to repeat copy themselves , have longevity, and spread. Tämä tarkoittaa, että organismin ominaisuuksiin, kuten fyysiseen ulkonäköön, käyttäytymiseen ja kykyihin, vaikuttavat kaikki sen geenit. . Selfishness and altruism can both be explained by animals acting to protect either themselves or their relatives who will, by definition, share many of their genes.
The Selfish Gene Chapter 1: Why Are People? Summary & Analysis
. . Therefore, it makes more sense to look at life from the perspective of a selfish gene doing anything it can to reproduce itself because, outside of random mutations, genes pass from one generation to the next unchanged. Winning a race stands for being successful in processes of natural selection. At the genetic level, the purpose of altruistic acts is to ensure the survival of genes. Beginning with conception, the female egg contributes much more to the embryo in the way of food reserves than does the male. The amount of food and other resources a female bird or mated pair can give their children is what limits the number of chicks they can rear.