Surface marking of thorax. Surface Markings of Lungs 2022-10-14
Surface marking of thorax Rating:
The thorax, or chest, is a vital part of the human anatomy as it contains the heart, lungs, and other important organs. It is also an area of the body that is easily visible and therefore has various surface markings that can be used for diagnostic and clinical purposes.
One important surface marking of the thorax is the sternal angle, also known as the angle of Louis. This is the junction between the manubrium, or upper part of the sternum, and the body of the sternum. It is located at the level of the second thoracic vertebra and serves as a reference point for determining the location of other structures in the chest.
The xiphoid process is another prominent surface marking of the thorax. It is a small, pointed extension of the lower part of the sternum and is located just below the sternal angle. It is used as a reference point for measuring the depth of respiration and for locating the liver and other abdominal organs.
The nipples are another important surface marking of the thorax. They are located at the level of the fourth intercostal space and are used to locate the underlying mammary glands. In men, the nipples may be less prominent and may not be used as a reference point in the same way as in women.
The intercostal spaces are the spaces between the ribs and are an important surface marking of the thorax. They are used to locate the underlying organs and to measure the depth of respiration. The intercostal spaces are numbered from the top to the bottom, with the first intercostal space located just below the clavicle and the last intercostal space located at the level of the xiphoid process.
The thorax also has various other surface markings, including the trachea, which is a tube-like structure that extends from the larynx to the bronchi and is located in the midline of the neck and upper chest. The trachea is used as a reference point for locating the underlying organs and for diagnostic purposes.
In conclusion, the thorax has a number of important surface markings that are used for diagnostic and clinical purposes. These include the sternal angle, xiphoid process, nipples, intercostal spaces, and trachea. Understanding these surface markings is important for healthcare professionals, as it allows them to accurately locate and examine the underlying organs and tissues of the chest.
Surface Markings of the Pleura
The middle regions, viz. Below, the main landmarks are the symphysis pubis and the pubic crest and tubercle, the anterior superior iliac spine, and the iliac crest. The end of the ileum, i. Lines Of Orientation The subsequent imaginary lines in many cases are utilized to describesurface places on the anterior and posterior chest wall. Its position also varies with that of the body Figs.
On the posterior surface of the thorax the scapular line is drawn vertically through the inferior angle of the scapula. It may, however, extend as high as 4 or 5 cm. On the left side the pleural edge arches laterally at the 4th costal cartilage and descends lateral to the border of the sternum, due, of course, to its lateral displacement by the heart; apart from this, its relationships are those of the right side. By means of these horizontal planes the abdomen is divided into three zones named from above, the subcostal, umbilical, and hypogastric zones. In the position of expiration the lower border of the lung may be marked by a slightly curved line with its convexity downward, from the sixth sternocostal junction to the tenth thoracic spinous process. The spinous processes of all the thoracic vertebrae can be palpated in the midline posteriorly, but it should be remembered that the first spinous process that can be felt is that of C7 the vertebra prominens.
On the right side the line begins at the sternoclavicular articulation and runs downward and medialward to the midpoint of the junction between the manubrium and body of the sternum. The measurements given refer to a moderately filled stomach with the body in the supine position. Take three points: a 1. At the upper border of the manubrium sterni is the jugular notch: the lateral parts of this notch are obscured by the tendinous origins of the Sternocleidomastoidei, which appear as oblique cords narrowing and deepening the notch. It differs somewhat on 2 sides:. The lower border of the lung has an excursion of as much as 2—3in 5—8cm in the extremes of respiration, but in the neutral position midway between inspiration and expiration it lies along a line which crosses the 6th rib in the midclavicular line, the 8th rib in the midaxillary line, and reaches the 10th rib adjacent to the vertebral column posteriorly.
In the left lateral line the fundus of the stomach reaches as high as the fifth interspace or the sixth costal cartilage, a little below the apex of the heart. The intercostal muscles fill the intercostal spaces between the ribs and are involved in ventilation. Costal margin: It creates the lower boundary of the 5. In the middle line, in front, the superficial surface of the sternum can be felt throughout its entire length at the bottom of a furrow, the sternal furrow, situated between the Pectorales majores. Its body extends along the transpyloric line, the bulk of it lying above this line to the tail which is in the left hypochondriac region slightly to the left of the lateral line and above the transpyloric. The thoracic cavity communicates with the neck via the superior thoracic aperture and with the abdominal cavity via the inferior thoracic aperture through anatomical spaces piercing the diaphragm. Surface Markings of the Thorax F IG.
The line on the left side curves lateralward and downward across the fourth sternocostal articulation to reach the parasternal line at the fifth costal cartilage, and then turns medialward and downward to the sixth sternocostal articulation. The termination of the seventh nerve is at the level of the xiphoid process, the tenth reaches the vicinity of the umbilicus, the twelfth ends about midway between the umbilicus and the upper border of the symphysis pubis. If you move your fingers laterally from the notch, you will feel the heads of the clavicles on each side as they articulate with the upper part of the sternum. The significant vertical lines are shown in 1. The other three points are: a the seventh right sternocostal articulation; b a point on the upper border of the third right costal cartilage 1 cm. The pyloric orifice is on the transpyloric line about 1 cm. The hilum is on the transpyloric plane, 5 cm.
The highest point is 4 cm. In the emaciated subject, however, the ribs, especially in the lower and lateral regions, stand out as prominent ridges with the sunken intercostal spaces between them. A good guide to the size and position of your own heart is given by placing your clenched right fist palmar surface down immediately inferior to the manubriosternal junction. If you raise your arm while looking into a mirror, the two folds are obvious; they can also be palpated very easily even with clothes on. The xiphisternal joint is located at the level of the upper border of the body of T9 vertebra.
SURFACE ANATOMY OF ANTERIOR THORACIC WALL LUNG SURFACE
The lower pole is situated midway between the transpyloric and intertubercular planes, 7 cm. The pleura The cervical pleura can be marked out on the surface by a curved line drawn from the sternoclavicular joint to the junction of the medial and middle thirds of the clavicle; the apex of the pleura is about 1 in 2. Left Lateral The lung is located deep to the area going from axilla to the 7th or 8th rib. Left common carotid artery. The continuation of the anterior border of the right lung is marked by a prolongation of its line vertically downward to the level of the sixth costal cartilage, and then it turns lateralward and downward.
According to Birmingham the limits of the normal liver may be marked out on the surface of the body in the following manner. The space is therefore known as the triangle of ausculation. The coils of the ileum lie toward the right in the right lumbar and iliac regions, in the right half of the umbilical region, and in the hypogastric region; a portion of the ileum is within the pelvis. Immediately below this is the infrasternal notch; between the sternal ends of the seventh costal cartilages, and below the notch, is a triangular depression, the epigastric fossa, in which the xiphoid process can be felt. From this point the two lines run downward, practically along the midsternal line, as far as the level of the fourth costal cartilages. Â Key facts about the thorax Thoracic wall Openings: superior and inferior thoracic apertures Skeleton:Â sternum, twelve pairs of ribs, twelve thoracic vertebrae Joints:Â intervertebral discs, costovertebral, joint of head of rib, sternocostal, sternoclavicular, costochondral, interchondral joints Intercostal spaces: intercostal vein, artery, nerve Muscles: intercostal muscles,Â external, internal, innermost ,Â transversus thoracis, subcostals, levatores costarum, serratus posterior superior, serratus posterior inferior muscles Thoracic cavity The mediastinum is located centrally and bordered by two pleural cavities laterally. A curved line, convex downward and to the left, joining these points indicates the lesser curvature.