First four civilizations. The 4 Major Ancient Mesopotamian Civilizations That Existed 2022-10-13
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The first four civilizations that developed in human history were the Sumerian, Egyptian, Indus Valley, and Chinese civilizations. These ancient societies were characterized by complex systems of government, religion, and social structure, as well as advancements in art, architecture, and technology.
The Sumerian civilization, which emerged in Mesopotamia around 4000 BCE, was one of the earliest societies to develop a system of writing, using cuneiform script on clay tablets. The Sumerians also made significant advances in agriculture, developing irrigation systems and using plows to cultivate crops. They built cities with organized street grids and constructed temples, palaces, and public buildings using mud brick. The Sumerians had a complex social hierarchy, with a ruler at the top and various classes of citizens beneath him. They also developed a system of law and justice, and believed in a pantheon of gods and goddesses who controlled the natural world.
The Egyptian civilization, which arose in the Nile Valley around 3000 BCE, was known for its sophisticated system of government and its elaborate religious beliefs. The Pharaoh, the ruler of ancient Egypt, was considered a god and was responsible for maintaining order and enforcing the laws of the land. The Egyptian people were organized into a strict social hierarchy, with the Pharaoh and his family at the top, followed by the nobles, priests, scribes, and finally the peasants. The Egyptians built elaborate pyramids and tombs for their Pharaohs, and developed a system of hieroglyphic writing to record their history and beliefs. They also made significant advances in medicine, mathematics, and architecture.
The Indus Valley civilization, which flourished in the Indus Valley of present-day Pakistan and northwest India around 2500 BCE, was known for its well-planned cities and advanced system of governance. The Indus Valley people built elaborate public baths and sanitation systems, and developed a system of weights and measures. They also had a complex system of trade, with a wide variety of goods being exchanged between different cities and regions. The Indus Valley people worshipped a pantheon of gods and goddesses, and their religion was centered around the worship of natural forces such as the sun and the earth.
The Chinese civilization, which emerged in the Yellow River Valley of present-day China around 2000 BCE, was known for its sophisticated system of government and its advanced technology. The Chinese developed a system of writing using characters that are still in use today, and made significant advances in mathematics and science. They also developed a system of government based on the rule of law, with a centralized bureaucracy responsible for enforcing the laws and collecting taxes. The Chinese built elaborate palaces, temples, and tombs, and developed a sophisticated system of art and literature. They also developed a system of merit-based exams to select officials for the government, which helped to create a merit-based society.
Overall, the first four civilizations made significant contributions to the development of human society and culture. They developed complex systems of government, religion, and social structure, and made important advances in art, architecture, and technology. These ancient societies continue to influence the world today, and their legacy can be seen in the cultures and societies of the modern world.
The World's Oldest Civilizations
The first ruler of the Akkadian empire was known as Sargon. Instead, they were a peaceful people who traded amicably with neighboring civilizations. Belmont, California, USA: Thomson Wadsworth. Retrieved 3 March 2014. Invention of Hieroglyphic writing, irrigation systems, astronomy and the calendar, monumental architecture.
Greece has long been considered the seedbed or cradle of Western civilization. . Were there older civilizations that had systems of writing? It is believed that this ancient group of Aboriginal Australians first settled in Australia between 40,000 — 31,000 years ago. Retrieved 20 June 2022. They conquered much of the Middle East and Egypt.
Ideas, products and technologies were exchanged and modified so often and frequently that actual points of origin in time and place are mostly lost to us. Retrieved 22 October 2009. Babylon was originally home to one of the Seven Wonders of the World, The Hanging Gardens of Babylon. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. New York, NY: Routledge.
Retrieved 4 January 2016. In some societies, priests controlled the first governments. Nomadic life does not readily lend itself to the domestication of animals. In the case of the Indus Valley Civilization, this was followed by a period of de-urbanization and regionalisation, and the co-existence of indigenous local agricultural cultures and the pastoral Indo-Aryans, who came from Central Asia. Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt, Ancient India, and Ancient China are believed to be the earliest in the Old World.
It was here that the first written languages appear, around 3000BC, in the form of Cuneiform writing. This one should be obvious. The Little Book of Egyptian Hieroglyphics. They record the latest archeological discoveries, test new theories, and uncover original information. Usually, agricultural societies develope some sort of record keeping system to apportion and keep track of resources.
The known history of Babylon, then, begins with its most famous king: Hammurabi 1792-1750 BCE. To better understand this point it is important to remember that Egypt was originally split into regions known as Upper and Lower Egypt. Around 60 miles south of Baghdad is where the ancient city once stood. This time they conquered all of Mesopotamia and expanded the empire to include much of the Middle East including Egypt, Babylonia, Israel, and Cypress. History of Urban Form: Before the Industrial Revolutions Thirded. Using the latest technology in archaeology, anthropology, and genetics, this series tells the story of where the modern world began.
They traded basic human needs like food for ornamental items with other civilisations like the Mesopotamians and Chinese, which also indicates their self sufficiency in food and higher states of existences. While modern civilizations extend to every continent except Antarctica, most scholars place the earliest cradles of civilizations—in other words, where civilizations first emerged—in modern-day Iraq, Egypt, India, China, Peru and Mexico, beginning between approximately 4000 and 3000 B. Retrieved 20 May 2015. Today, they are perhaps most known for their calendar which marked December 21, 2012 as the end of time. Am J Hum Genet. It was mainly used among citizens who had been offered administrative posts by Sargon.
10 Oldest Civilizations in the World (Updated 2021)
New Delhi: Pearson Education. The Spanish destroyed most of the written records of the New World that they found, so both the civilizations of the New World are still being unraveled. Humans invented it, recognized its value and developed it into materials that make possible space flight, throw-away computers, and nuclear energy in the Current Era. The Sumerians were the first to develop trade and establish industries such as weaving, leatherwork, metalwork, masonry, and pottery. Some people were still in the Stone Age, some were transitioning to the Bronze Age and the rest were well entrenched in the Bronze Age. London, England: Thames and Hudson.