Ethological theory of human development. Ethological Theories 2022-10-03
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Ethological theory is a perspective on human development that emphasizes the role of evolution and genetics in shaping behavior and development. According to this theory, much of human behavior and development is the result of inherited tendencies and adaptations that have evolved over time to help individuals survive and reproduce in their environment.
One key concept in ethological theory is that of the "survival instinct," which refers to the inherent drive to preserve one's own life and that of one's offspring. This instinct is thought to be present in all animals, including humans, and is believed to play a central role in shaping behavior and development.
Another important aspect of ethological theory is the concept of "niche picking," which refers to the idea that individuals are born with certain predispositions or tendencies that are suited to particular environments or lifestyles. These predispositions can influence an individual's choice of career, relationships, and other aspects of life.
According to ethological theory, human development is not just the result of learning and experience, but is also influenced by inherited characteristics and adaptations. For example, research has shown that certain behaviors and traits, such as aggression and altruism, can be influenced by genetics.
Ethological theory also emphasizes the importance of the social and cultural context in which development takes place. Humans are highly social animals, and our behavior and development are shaped by the social norms, values, and expectations of our culture.
One criticism of ethological theory is that it may oversimplify the complexity of human behavior and development. It is important to recognize that there are many factors that can influence development, including genetics, environment, and learning.
Overall, ethological theory offers a valuable perspective on human development, highlighting the role of evolution and genetics in shaping behavior and development. However, it is important to recognize that development is a complex process influenced by many factors, and that a more complete understanding of development requires considering multiple perspectives and approaches.
Ethology and Evolutionary Developmental Psychology
These linguistic symbols categorize and organize the world around them. These observations determined common patterns, especially with regard to impulses oriented towards sexual energy — also called libido -, which led him to conclude that biological instincts in those early years are innate and determining in the development of personality. Being Human: Bridging the Gap between the Sciences of Body and Mind. Accessed October 13, 2017. On the basis of above argument, evolutionary approaches put forward that our genetic inheritance determines not only such physical traits as skin and eye color, but certain personality traits and social behaviors as well. Some of these include crying, smiling, and even babbling. Fixed Action Patterns FAP : Dutch biologist and ornithologist, Niko Tinbergen explained that all members of the same species exhibit the same identical behaviors with no prior learning involved no matter where they were raised.
The evolutionary perspective draws heavily on the field of ethology. In this paper I shall first present a general discussion of the relationship between ethology and human development, then describe a comparative psychophysiological approach, and finally give an account of some of my own research. These include aspects of cultural evolution such as approaches to illness, disease, and health that reflect achievements of civilization and medicine. On the Biology of Learning. The three won the Nobel in 1973 for such scientific contribution. Indian subcontinent adaptation, New Delhi: Dorling Kindersley India pvt ltd.
Ethological Perspectives on Human Development and Aging
Many scientific theories are so well established that no new evidence is likely to alter them substantially. These are seen as innate and not learned behaviors, because even children born blind and deaf begin to smile socially at 6 weeks, and cry and babble. When the egg is already recovered, the mother goose returns to incubate again. Some behaviors are just universal and generally vary depending on the social context. The chapter discusses the Donner Party disaster, and the hardship of the Plymouth Colony, tragedies from early U.
The stages of development, according to this scholar, are eight, in each of which the individual faces a crisis that has two possible solutions: a positive and a negative. Like the geese, there is also a period in human development where the child is very sensitive to information and the exposure to these bear huge impacts in the course of development. J Ornithol in German. While chimpanzees can learn to use tools by watching other chimps around them, but humans are able to pool their cognitive resources to create increasingly more complex solutions to problems and more complex ways of interacting with their environments. The stages of cognitive development according to Piaget are the following: 1-Sensory-motor 0-2 years : where children divide the world between what they can suck and what they cannot.
This phenomenon though is still up for further studies. Darwin the Origin of Species,1859 argued that a process of natural selection creates traits in a species that are adaptive to its environment. Those individuals are more likely to survive to produce offspring bearing that allele. Ethological Theory: In biology, behavior is referred to as the way by which living things react to different stimuli in the environment. Theories of Developmental Psychology.
. The most famous example for the ethological theory is the so-called filial imprinting. They begin to organize their experiences by assigning them categories and schemas, which are the first step in intentional behaviour and problem-solving. This approach is important as a way to build a bridge between biological and social sciences, which creates a better understanding of human ethology. Theory of attachment by John Bowlby- phases of attachment development, critiques of attachment theory. Accessed October 13, 2017.
Charles Darwin theory of evolution- Natural selection and critiques of the theory. Cognitive thinking and communication arose as a result of a need for cooperation amongst individuals for survival. Development through the lifespan. These impulses are innate and change at each stage. It seems, therefore, that the newborn has a natural or innate ability to physically attach to their caregiver.
Population genetics includes several hypotheses and theories regarding genetic diversity. Humans as social and cultural animals were soon included. Behavioral genetics studies the effects of heredity on behavior. Reflexes can be instincts. Attachment theory by Bowlby- Phases of att.
These needs provide energy for humans to act upon their needs in order to meet them, rather than being reactive to them. According to Freud, it is a stage in which you want to possess the parent of the opposite s3x and eliminate the other, what is known as the Oedipus complex or Electra. Ethology examines the ways in which our biological makeup influences our behavior. Ethology involves the study of animal behaviors by observing, describing, and evaluating them in the natural setting. Studies revealed that these mechanisms are innate and are not learned because children who were born deaf and blind also do the same things.